Known officially as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, this beautifully green country is surrounded by Germany to the East, France to the South and Belgium to the West and North, and is headed by the Grand Duke Henri Albert Gabriel Felix Marie Guillaume while having the Prime Minister Xavier Bettel as leader of the Democratic Party and main power behind Luxembourgian ministries.
Luxembourg is the second richest country in the world if you go by GDP per Capita, being only second to Qatar, and is a member of the European Union, NATO, the United Nations, OECD and Benelux. The country covers just over 2500 square kilometres and is home to over half a million people.
Stone Age History
The evidence of the first primitive inhabitants of Luxembourg is in the form of decorated bones found in Oetrange which are dated to be over 35,000 years old.
However, traces of civilization, that is, housing, has been found in Aspelt, Grevenmacher and Diekirch, alongside pottery found in Remerschen, these structures date back to the 5th
Bronze Age History
There is limited evidence detailing inhabitants of this time in the region but some evidence, such as pottery, knives and jewellery, has been found and dated back to as early as the 13th
Century BC in the regions of Nospelt, Mompach, Dalheim and Remerschen.
Iron Age History
It’s estimated that Celtic groups occupied the region from 600 BC onwards and are known to have constructed a range of fortified settlements, especially in the case of the Treveri, a Gaulish tribe.
The earliest evidence of Celtic civilization is in the form of various tombs have been found in Niederanven, Flaxwiler, Grosbous and Altrier and have been dated back as early as 450 BC. The tomb in Altrier especially contained some interesting finds, including a bronze stamnos (a water jug) of Etruscan (Ancient Tuscany, Italy) origin, a gold bracelet, an ornate bronze and coral fibula (a broach) and an iron sword. The Grosbous tomb is also interesting as when it was discovered the corpse had been placed on a two-wheeled chariot. These finds indicate that the Celts were well versed in making basic vehicles and crafting gold, bronze and iron as well as likely trading with nearby cultures.
In the 1st
Century BC around 53 BC, Julius Caesar’s Roman empire pushed into Luxembourg and took it without much resistance as the most dominant tribe, the Treveri, quickly adapted and became part of the empire without hesitation.
1st Century – 15th Century History
In the 1st
Century AD, two revolts against the Roman Empire by the Treveri served to bolster their ranks significantly, but did not permanently damage their relationship with Rome. In the 4th
Century AD, the Germanic Franks pushed into Luxembourg and drove Rome out, seeing it completely abandoned by Rome in 406 AD. It then became part of Merovingian Austrasia in 480 AD.
During 800 AD, Charlemagne was crowed Emperor and Luxembourg became part of the Carolingian Empire, this eventually became the Holy Roman Empire which assumed control of Luxembourg as a part of Upper Lorraine in 959 AD. Luxembourg’s main city began to develop a few years later when Siegfried I, Count of Ardennes, traded some of his ancestral lands for an old Roman Fort named Lucilinburhug. This fort saw a town develop around it over time and became enlarged and strengthened over time by the Bourbons, the Babsburgs and the Hohenzollerns until it became known as the Fortress of Luxembourg, one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, also known as ‘Gibraltar of the North’. It became known as many names including the prior two names mentioned, but also Lutzburg, Lutzelburg, Luccelemburc and Lichtburg, among others.
Over time, Luxembourg became a duchy and saw the Kings of Prussia advance claims into the patrimony as heirs to William of Thuringia and Anna of Bohemia, dukes of Luxembourg in 1460 AD and the Prussian royalty gradually pushed into the region little by little.
16th Century – 19th Century History
Around 1609, the Kings of Prussia had managed to establish a territorial base in Luxembourg and rapidly claimed more land as they saw fit, meanwhile the country itself had become controlled by Albert VII after it had been bequeathed from Phillip II of Spain to his daughter Isabella Clara Eugenia and her aforementioned husband Albert. However, in 1621 he passed away without children and the country was passed to his great-nephew, Phillip IV of Spain. In 1684, Louis XIV of France invaded Luxembourg and in retaliation, the League of Augsburg, also known as the Grand Alliance, was formed by Austria, Brandenburg (modern-day Prussia), England, Ireland, Scotland, Bavaria (another part of modern-day Austria), Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Savoy (part of modern-day Italy), Saxony (part of modern-day Germany), the Dutch Republic (part of modern-day Netherlands) and the Holy Roman Empire (modern-day Germany and parts of modern-day France) a couple of years later. By 1697, France had surrendered Luxembourg back to the Prussian Kings.
In 1715, Luxembourg was integrated into the Austrian Netherlands (most of modern-day Belgium) and Austrian royalty began to rule the country and political power shifts were planned repeatedly but none were successfully executed. In 1795, Luxembourg was conquered by France once more, and although Luxembourg rebelled three years later, this was quickly silenced.
France ruled Luxembourg for the next hundred years until Napoleon was defeated in 1815 and the Congress of Vienna gave full autonomy to Luxembourg, but by now the country had been annexed repeatedly with Belgium, France and Prussian Germany taking big portions of the country’s territory. It wasn’t long before the Luxembourgian populace joined the Belgian revolution against Dutch rule and in 1830 the new Belgian state was formed with Luxembourg considered a province of it and in 1839, France ceded French-controlled Luxembourg to Belgium as well. However, in the same year, the country was confirmed as sovereign and in personal union to the king of the Netherlands by the Treaty of London and Belgium broke all ties with the nation as a result. The loss of the Belgian market caused high-intensity economic damage to the country and it became predominantly controlled by Germany, being merged into the German Zollverein in 1842.
For the next two decades the country would undergo multiple plans and attempts to be annexed by Belgium, France and Germany and saw these three countries involved in squabbling over the nation. But in 1867, Luxembourg took its independence during the second Treaty of London and all non-national garrisons were withdrawn. However, the country remained a possession of the kings of the Netherlands until William III passed away in 1890 and Luxembourg was passed to the House of Nassau-Weilburg due to the Nassau inheritance pact of 1783.
20th Century History
The Nassau household continued to rule the country as the era entered into World War I, and the country considered itself neutral in the war, being occupied by German troops forced Marie-Adelaide, Grand Duchess and Princess of the house of Nassau, to take a neutral stance. The occupation ended in 1918 and the country began being led by a new head of state, Charlotte, the new Grand Duchess of Luxembourg. A year later, universal suffrage for both men and women was introduced into the country as politics became more controlled by the people.
As the 1920’s rolled around, Luxembourg became a member state of the League of Nations and industry began more widespread as agriculture declined. In 1921, Luxembourg entered into an economic and monetary union with Belgium, the UEBL (Union Economique Belgo-Luxembourgeoise) but still retained strong ties with Germany as a trading partner. Meanwhile on the political stage, the Rechtspartei (Part of the Right), dominated the governing forces, this was mainly due to the support of the church as over 90% of the population were Catholics, as well as having the support of the newspaper: The Luxemburger Wort.
In the 1930’s, politics deteriorated rapidly as squabbles between Luxembourgish political parties were influenced by European right and left wing politics with the government attempting to quell communist-led troublemakers and continuing friendly negotiations with Nazi Germany. The Communist Part was officially outlawed in 1937 but this was overturned in the same year. In 1939, World War II broke out and Luxembourg quickly declared itself neutral once more, but despite this neutrality and the friendly negotiations with Nazi-lead Germany, the country saw itself invaded by the latter and the German armed forces exiled the Luxembourgish monarchy and governing parties. There was minimal resistance to the German armed forces in the city of Luxembourg and it was captured quickly. The Luxembourgish Royal Family fled to the United States and the Grand Duchess Charlotte herself began broadcasting through the BBC to Luxembourg to give the people hope from 1940 onwards.
In 1942, Germany began attempting to make use of the Luxembourg populace, shutting down the administrative, agricultural, industry and education sectors and declaring forced conscription into the German military as well as banning the use of French and forcing the use of German. These new measures drove rebellions and strikes across the country, but Germany brutally opposed the strikes, executing multiple strikers and deporting hundreds to concentration camps where they were usually later executed as well. However, in 1944, the US liberated most of the country and with the help of the other Allies, expelled the German forces completely in 1945. Neutrality as a tactic was abandoned by the populace following the end of the way in 1949 when it became a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as well as the United Nations while forming a new economic and monetary union with Belgium and the Netherlands, BeNeLux.
Luxembourg formed the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1952, and, in 1957, inspired by political activist and statesman Robert Schuman, Luxembourg formed the European Economic Community alongside Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, and the country began to pursue a stronger political presence as a mediator between nations. In 1964, Grand Duchess Charlotte was succeeded by her son, Grand Duke Jean.
The country continued to develop further but saw the crisis of the metallurgy sector in the 70’s and a recession was barely missed. In 1985, Letzebuergesch (Luxembourgish) was declared the national language and the country became trilingual with German as the written language and French becoming the language of official letters and law. The same year, a mysterious bombing spree spread across the nation, targeting electrical masts and installations.
In 1993, the European Economic Community was renamed as the European Union and two years later, the Prime Minister of Luxembourg, Jacques Santer, became President of the aforementioned European Union, but later had to resign over accusations of corruption. In 1998, the Banque Centrale du Luxembourg (Central Bank of Luxembourg) was created and the following year in 1999, Luxembourg joined the Euro Currency Area.
21st Century History
In 2000, Grand Duke Jean abdicated the throne and Grand Duke Henri, his son, ascended into power and in 2004, Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker became the semi-permanent President of the group of finance ministers for the 12 countries that share the Euro, so he is often dubbed “Mr Euro”. A year later, he threatened to resign in an attempt to foster votes for the European Constitution, the document was approved by 56.52% of voters following this.
Parlez Vous Anglais / Francais?
Pah-lay Voo On-glay / Fron-say
Do you speak English / Spanish?
My name is…
Pouvez Vous M'aider?
Poo-vay Voo May-de
Can you help me?
I’m looking for…
Oui / Non
Wee / Noh
Yes / No
Mr / Mrs / Miss
Aujourd Hui / Maintenant
Oh-shord Wee / Mane-ten-on
Today / Now
Demain / Hier
Deh-mon / He-air
Tomorrow / Yesterday
Ce / Que / Ici / La
See / Kay / Ee-see / Lah
This / That / Here / There
Above are a few common French phrases to help you get around.
Luxembourgish is considered the national language as 90% of Luxembourg’s residents speak it; however, French is more widely spoken by 96% of the population. Additionally, 92% speak German and 61% speak English. A further 12% speak other languages of varying sorts, mainly European in origin.
It should be noted that a wide portion of the population is Trilingual, or at least Bilingual, and will speak a combination of Luxembourgish, French, German and English. Many schools also teach Spanish, Portuguese, Latin and other languages of mainly European origin.
It’s impossible to give an exact figure of religious diversity in Luxembourg as it’s been illegal for the government to collect statistics on religion since 1980, but it’s estimated that around 70% of Luxembourgian nationals are Christians (mainly Catholic), around 2% are Muslims, around 27% are Atheists and the last 1% follow other religious beliefs or practices.
The Grand Duchy recognizes and supports several dominations but in exchange has a hand in their affairs but today sees little interference from the government, if at all, in any religious branch, mainstream or not. Today, the state recognizes Roman Catholicism, Judaism, Greek and Russian Orthodox Christianity and Protestantism as officially mandated religions, other groups are also engaging in talks to become officially mandated religions as well including Anglicanism, Islam, and both Romanian and Serbian Orthodox Christianity.
Museums, Galleries & Architecture
Luxembourg’s architectural styles can be broken down into roughly six eras; Celts (2nd Century BC-1st Century AD), Roman (1st-5th Century AD), Christian (5th-11th Century AD), Medieval (11th-15th Century AD), Renaissance (15th-20th Century AD) and Contemporary (20th Century AD-Present).
The Treveri are mainly responsible for the earliest architecture in the region, a prosperous Celtic Tribe, the Treveri built small, low down, round buildings in small clusters all across the country. As the Romans moved into the country in the 1st Century AD, we see Bathhouses, Villas and even Mansions begin to be built around the country, this persisted until the fall and recall of the Romans later on that century. Soon afterwards, Christianity, first brought in by the Roman predecessors, began to sweep across Europe and a wide array of Churches began to be constructed, these were often revamped and restructured in the 14th and 16th Centuries with Gothic-style additions.
During the Medieval period, warring became commonplace between various factions fighting for control over the country as it became fair ground for claims by modern-day France, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. Both interior and exterior factions began to build large castles and fortresses, these include the Castle of Vianden and Bourscheid Castle, both built in the 11th Century, as well as Beaufort Castle and Clervaux Castle, both built in the 12th Century, among others.
The Renaissance era saw a slightly more modern look to its buildings but also kept a Gothic theme, perhaps to keep the country’s culture alive, and include structures such as the Grand Ducal Palace build in the 16th Century, Neumunster Abbey built in the 17th Century, Fort Thungen built in the 18th Century and both the Cercle Municipal and the Hotel de la Caisse built in the early 20th Century. This era also saw the birth of many bridges across the country which have rapidly become national symbols and include the Pont Du Chateau built in the 18th Century, the Passerelle built in the 19th Century and both the Adolphe Bridge and the Grand Duchess Charlotte Bridge completed in the 20th Century.
In recent years the country has also seen a string of new developments with more efforts to accommodate the arts, sports and the financial industry. Most prominent are the National Sports and Cultural Centre built in 2001, the Philharmonie Concert Hall built in 2005, the Museum of Modern Art built in 2006 and the European Investment Bank built in 2008.
Clothing, Dress Style & Etiquette
Today Luxembourgish citizens wear western-style clothing enjoyed all across Europe, but historically the country took many of its trends from France and Germany, and to a lesser extent, Belgium. The country was also influenced by Italian fashion frequently and saw men wear hats more consistently than that anywhere else in Europe, and women wear skirts and dresses more often than slacks or trousers. A general note of most Luxembourgian citizens is to always be well-dressed in public and to reserve other clothing for the home or for use whilst practicing sports.
Literature, Poetry, Music & Dance
Culturally, Luxembourg’s music scene is derived from Germanic music styles and has seen many variations of music within the country have a strong impact on the discipline’s development. Classical music in particular had a strong developmental cycle within the country and saw influential musician Laurent Menager produce masterful pieces throughout the 19th
Century. Other prominent classical musicians (many contemporary) include composers Camille Kerger, Georges Lentz, Claude Lenners, Marcel Wengler and Alexander Mullenbach, pianists Francesco Tristano Schlime and Jean Muller, violinist Sandrine Cantoreggi, cellist Francoise Groben and singer Mariette Kemmer.
Other contemporary musical styles are also incredibly popular with Jazz, Folk, Pop, Protest and Rock genres being widespread across the country, these include trumpeters Gast Waltzing and Ernie Hammes, percussionist Pascal Schumacher, pianist Michel Reis as well political-pop Serge Tonnar and the Legotrip and indie-folk band Kate.
Calendar & Events
As always, Luxembourg begins its first public holiday on New Year’s Day, January 1st
but doesn’t take another public holiday until Easter when Good Friday and Easter Monday are celebrated in mid-April. Then on the first day of May, Labour Day allows for another public holiday and in late May another public holiday is taken to celebrate the Ascension of Jesus in the Christian faith. Two more days are taken in June at the beginning and the end of the month to celebrate Whit Monday and Luxembourg’s National Holiday respectively, then another holiday is taken a whole month later in the middle of August for Assumption. The first day of November sees another public holiday for All-Saint’s Day and three more holidays are taken in December for Christmas Eve, Christmas Day and Boxing Day, although Christmas Eve is simply a half-day.
Like large nightclubs, parties and bouncing tunes? You’ll love Melusina in Clausen! The club boasts a huge dancefloor coupled with multiple surrounding lodges and a VIP area which plays more chilled out music, the Superlounge.
Perhaps you’d prefer something a little more dance-y but with a retro feel? Try Scott’s in Grund, this Irish Pub is divided into three areas, one being outside, and has a nightclub in the top area which plays 70’s style music.
Maybe you prefer something a little more refined? The Vinoteca is a beautiful wine-bar run by a top sommelier and boasts a beautiful valley-view from the terrace as well as a cool cellar bar area to chill out away from the hot sun.
The Tube is an English Pub which incorporates a tube design based on the styles of the London Underground, its known best for being an active sports bar which plays football around the clock and all through the week on many of its large TV screens.
A mysterious garden awaits you as the Secret Garden unfolds, its entrance shrouded; it features a variety of comfortable sofas and chairs in an open setting environment and cool drinks all around to help you enjoy the night atmosphere.
Up until recently, Luxembourg used the Luxembourgish Franc which used the currency code LUF, however, today it uses the Euro like many of its other European neighbours. The Euro uses the currency code EUR. 1 Euro is worth about £1.38 or £0.82 and can be subdivided down into 100 Euro Cents.
Coins come in 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cent variants as well as 1 and 2 Euro variants.
Bank notes are available in 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 Euro variants.
Luxembourg’s economy is built almost solely on the banking, steel, industrial and tourist sectors. Banking has been an especially strong suit and has led to the stereotype of Luxembourg being a tax haven. Today, its total assets in the banking sector are valued at around EUR 1 Trillion (around $1.4 Trillion or £820 Billion).
During the late 19th Century, English metallurgy was introduced into the country and it rapidly became a common practice in the country, especially after the forming of the Arbed Company in the early 20th Century. Today, Steel makes up around 29% of all exports, 22% of industrial employment, 3.9% of the work force and 1.8% of GDP.
Tourism is also a large source of income for the country and makes up around 8.3% of GDP annually whilst incorporating around 11.7% of the workforce. Additional sources of income in the country include the Telecommunications and Agricultural industries.
Luxembourg behaves identically to its European neighbours as well as the UK and US in the way its banks work. Two main types of accounts are provided to the public including Current and Savings Accounts. Current Accounts allow for easy and quick withdrawal of funds but have low interest rates whilst Savings Accounts provide higher interest rates but normally restrict the amount of uncharged withdrawals allowed by an individual.
ATMs are widespread all across Luxembourg, especially in its cities, and you shouldn’t ever have trouble withdrawing cash in any urban environment.
Luxembourg incorporates standard western-style taxes, these include Income Tax, Social Security, Net Worth Tax and Inheritance & Gift Taxes.
All residents of Luxembourg are subject to Income Tax on their worldwide income. Individuals are considered to be residents if their accommodation exceeds six months. It should be mentioned that married individuals are jointly taxable. This can be broken down into Employment Income (scales based on income), Self-Employment & Business Income (scales based on income), Investment Income (taxed at up to 35%), Movable Property (taxed at up to 21.8%), Real Estate (taxed at up to 21.8%). Income Tax rates are as follows:
Below EUR 20,000: Individual 0% - Couple 0%
Between EUR 20,000 and 40,000: Individual 3.94% - Couple 0%
Between EUR 40,001 and 60,000: Individual 16.21% - Couple 4.69%
Between EUR 60,001 and 80,000: Individual 24.68% - Couple 10.75%
Between EUR 80,001 and 100,000: Individual 28.95% - Couple 16.58%
Between EUR 100,001 and 120,000: Individual 31.5% - Couple 21.58%
Between EUR 120,001 and 140,000: Individual 33.39% - Couple 24.93%
Above EUR 140,000: Individual 34.73% - Couple 27.33%
Luxembourg’s cuisine style is strongly founded in Germanic and Latin origins but has recently seen influences from both Portugal and Italy come in, but also sees some French dishes integrated into its traditional day-to-day dishes. Due to its geographical location as a landlocked country, seafood is rare at best and instead the dishes tend to use meat sourced from mountainous regions of the country (such as Oesling Ham), agriculturally grown vegetables (such as potatoes, carrots, broad beans, green beans and horse radish), mushrooms, chicken, pork, hare and some fruit (mainly apples). Cheese is also common in the country, as is wheat for bread products and freshwater fish and crustaceans (such as trout, pike and crayfish).
Common dishes incorporating many of these ingredients include Judd Mat Gaardebounen (soaked and smoked pork boiled with broad beans and spices), F’rell Am Reisleck (trout in Riesling sauce), Kriibsen Am Reisleck (crayfish in Riesling sauce), Fritur (small fried fish accompanied by white wine), Coq Au Riesling (chicken simmered in white wine with vegetables, spices and mushroons, served with Riesling sauce), Civet De Lievre (jugged hare), Quenelle (liver dumplings), Traipen (black pudding, often served with apple sauce) and Bouneschlupp (sausages with mashed potatoes and horseradish).
Wine and Beer (mainly Lager) are also produced extensively in Luxembourg and these include wines Pinot Gris, Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Rivaner, Gewurztraminer, Elbling, Cramant de Luxembourg and Pinot Noir as well as beers Battin, Bofferding, Diekirch and Mousel.
Being a part of the European Union, Luxembourg follows most of the same policies that apply to the other members of the EU, EEA and Schengen Area, prospective members of the Schengen Area, members of the following countries may enter with no visa for an undisclosed amount of time:
Members of the following countries may stay without a visa in Luxembourg for up to 90 days:
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Antigua and Barbuda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
The level of healthcare in Luxembourg is parallel to the level of healthcare across the rest of the European Union. Although officially it is ranked to have the 13th
best healthcare system in Europe (of a list of 45 healthcare systems) and the 16th
best in the world by the World Health Organization, it was also ranked the 4th
best in Europe by the Euro Health Consumer Index’s Health Consumer Powerhouse and joint most accessible healthcare system alongside Belgium and Switzerland.
Luxembourg has six major motorways that link the capital city to Thionville in France, Trier in Germany and Arlon in Belgium, as well as connecting the cities of Ettelbruck and Esch-sur-Alzette in Luxembourg itself. These motorways over 147 kilometres and are complimented by around 2900 kilometres of additional smaller roads, and as a result grants Luxembourg the most dense motorway infrastructure in Europe. It’s also important to note that the speed limit is at 130 km/h but this is dropped to 110 km/h in rainy weather, plus motorways are toll free. Around 200 Buses serve Luxembourg City and other surrounding areas, cities and towns.
National rail lines link the most prominent towns and cities in Luxembourg together such as Luxembourg City, Esch-sur-Alzette, Ettelbruck, Wasserbillig and Kleinbettingen. It also links internationally to Trier in Germany, Brussels and Liege in Belgium, and Metz, Nancy and Paris in France. Additionally, Tram Lines between Kirchberg and Luxembourg Airport are planned and light rail networks around the capital are also being planned.
Luxembourg has only a single commercial port, Mertert on the river Moselle, which has two quays covering 1.6k combined and linking to road and rail transportation. However, Luxembourg also owns over 45 ships; 15 chemical tankers, 9 roll on/roll offs, 6 bulks, 4 containers, 3 cargos, 3 petroleum tankers, 3 passengers and 1 liquefied gas. These ships are stored in harbours in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, UK, US and Ukraine.
Luxembourg also has only a single Airport, Luxembourg Airport in Findel, but supports even the largest aircraft due to a runway stretching over 4 kilometres. It is operated in by Luxair and Cargolux which fly to over 37 countries, 20 being European. Many commercial airlines fly to Luxembourg daily including British Airways, SAS, TAP Portugal, KLM and Swiss European Air Lines. The airport is ranked as the 5th
largest in Europe and the 23rd
largest in the world.
Embassies in Luxembourg include:
Armenian Consulate in Bertrange, Luxembourg
Consulate General of Armenia in Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
36, rue de Luxembourg, L-8077
Phone: (352) 26315740
Fax: (352) 26315750
Austrian Embassy in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg
Embassy of Austria in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg
3, rue des bains, 1212 Luxemburg, Luxembourg
City: Luxembourg Ville
Phone: (+352) 47 11 88
Fax: (+352) 46 39 74
Barbadian Consulate in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg
Consulate of Barbados in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg
15, rue des Roses, 3361 Leudelange, Luxembourg
City: Luxembourg Ville
Phone: (+352) 37 91 66
Fax: (+352) 37 91 66
Belgian Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Belgium in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Residence Champagne, 4, Rue des Girondins, 1626 Luxembourg
Phone: + (352) 25.43.25-1
+ (352) 44.27.46-1
Fax: + (352) 45.42.82
Office Hours: Monday through Friday 9 AM to 2 PM
Bulgarian Consulate in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Honorary Consul of the Republic of Bulgaria to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Stanley Ross International S.A., 29q rue Alphonse Munchen, L-2172 Luxembourg
Phone: +352 / 448876
Fax: 352 / 448887
Burundian Consulate in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg
Consulate of Burundi in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg
1, rue Paul Wigreux , 2727 Howald Luxembourg
City: Luxembourg Ville
Phone: (+352) 22 82 82; (+352) 47 33 33
Cameroonian Consulate in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg
Consulate of the Republic of Cameroon in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg
95, rue des Bruyres , B.P.2403 , 1024 Luxembourg Ville Luxembourg
City: Luxembourg Ville
Phone: (+352) 401091
Fax: (+352) 40109500
Canadian Consulate in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Consulate of Canada in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
rue Guillaume Schneider 15, Luxembourg, Luxembourg, L-2522
Phone: (011 35 2) 2627 0570
Fax: (011 35 2) 2627 0670
Canadian Embassy in Luxembourg
The Embassy of Canada to Luxembourg
c/o The Embassy of Canada, 2 avenue de Tervuren, Brussels, Belgium, 1040
Phone: (011-32-2) 7410611
Chinese Embassy in Dommeldange, Luxembourg
Chinese Embassy in Dommeldange, Luxembourg
2, Rue Van Der Meulen, Dommeldange, L-2152, Luxembourg
Comoran Consulate in Luxembourg
Consulate of the Comoros - Luxembourg
Phone: (352) 456 790-444 343
Fax: (352) 456 792-445 795
Cypriot Consulate in Jean-Baptiste Fresez, Luxembourg
Honorary Consulate of the Republic of Cyprus in Jean-Baptiste Fresez, Luxembourg
36, rue Jean-Baptiste Fresez, L-1542 Luxembourg
City: Jean-Baptiste Fresez
Phone: (00352) 43032253, 223035
Fax: (00352) 43033182, 463041
Office Hours: 09:00 - 12:00, 14:00 - 18:00
Czech Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of the Czech Republic in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
2, rond-point R. Schuman , L-2525 Luxembourg
Office Hours: Monday - Friday: 08.30-12.30 and 13.00-17.00
Danish Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Royal Danish Embassy in Luxembourg
4, Rue Des Girondins, L-1626 Luxembourg
Phone: +352 2221221
Fax: +352 222124
Office Hours: Monday to Friday: 10:: am to 2:00 pm
Djibouti Consulate in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Consulate of the Republic of Djibouti in Luxembourg
2, rue des Sapins 2513 Senningerberg
Phone: (+352) 349090
Fax: (+352) 349001
Estonian Consulate in Grand Duchy Of Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Estonian Honorary Consul in Luxembourg
D.E.A. Droit Prive, , 10, rue Willy Georgen , L-1636 Luxembourg , Postal address: B.P. 679, L-2016 Luxembourg , (Grand Duchy of Luxembourg)
City: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Phone: (352) 26 26 02 02
Fax: (352) 26 26 02 26
Finnish Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Finland in Luxembourg
Ambassade de Finlande, 2, rue Heine, L-1720
Phone: + 352 495 551
Fax: + 352 494 640
Office Hours: Customer Service: Mon-Fri 10.00-12.00 Office hours: Mon-Fri 8.30-12.00 and 13.00-16.15
French Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of France in Luxembourg
8b boulevard Joseph II, L-1840 Luxembourg
Phone:  45 72 71
Fax:  45 72 71 227
French Consulate in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Consulate of France in Luxembourg
8b boulevard Joseph II, L-1840 Luxembourg, Adresse postale : BP 359 - 2013 Luxembourg
Phone:  45 73 721
Fax:  45 73 72 244
German Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Germany in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
20-22, avenue Emile Reuter, L- 2420 Luxemburg
Phone: (00 352) 45 34 45-1
Fax: (00 352) 45 56 04
Office Hours: Montag bis Freitag 09.00 - 12.00 Uhr
Greek Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Greece in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
27 rue Marie-Adelaide, L-2128 Luxembourg
Phone: (00352) 4451931
Fax: (00352) 450164
Email: email@example.com (Embassy), firstname.lastname@example.org (Consular Office)
Greenlandic Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Royal Danish Embassy in Luxembourg
4, Rue Des Girondins, L-1626 Luxembourg
Phone: +352 22 21 221
Fax: +352 22 21 24
Office Hours: Monday to Friday: 10:00 am to 2:00 pm
Details: The Faroe Islands and Greenland are part of the Kingdom of Denmark. As a main principle, the Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Kingdom of Denmark are the responsibility of the Danish government.
Indian Consulate in Luxemburg, Luxembourg
Honorary Consulate General of India in Luxemburg
Cabinet d Avocats Jim Penning, 31, Grand-Rue, B.P. 282, L-2012
Indonesian Consulate in Grand Duche, Luxembourg
Honorary Consulate of Indonesia in Luxembourg
Rue J.F. Kennedy, L-7327, Steinsel, Grand Duche, Luxembourg
City: Grand Duche
Phone: (352) 331-722
Fax: (352) 331-725
Irish Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Ireland in Luxembourg
Residence Christina (2nd floor), 28 Route D'Arlon, L-1140
Office Hours: Opening Hours Mon-Fri 09:30-12:30 am. (Embassy closed to the public in the afternoon) Telephone queries: Mon-Fri 09:30-12:30 and 14:30-17:00
Details: Ambassador: His Excellency Diarmuid O'Leary
Italian Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Italy in Luxembourg
5-7, rue Marie-Adelaide, Lussemburgo L-2128
Phone: 00352 530051
Japanese Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Japan
62, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1510 , Luxembourg,, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg., (B.P.92 L-2010)
Office Hours: 09h.00-12h.30, 14h.00-17h.30
Malagasy Consulate in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Honorary Consulate of Madagascar in Luxembourg
23, rue de Beaumont, L-1219 Luxembourg
Phone: 3 52 22 20 59
Fax: 3 52 22 17 37
Maltese Consulate in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Honorary Consulate of Malta in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
55 Boulevard De La Petrusse, BP 690, L-2016 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Phone: 00352 297 2981
Fax: 00352 297 299
Dutch Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Luxembourg
6, rue Sainte Zithe, L-2763 Luxembourg
Phone: +352 22 75 70
Fax: +352 40 30 16
Omani Consulate in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg
Consulate of Oman in Luxembourg Luxembourg (Grand Duchy of Luxembourg)
8, Rue De L'Hippodrome B.P/ 1781, L. 1017 Luxembourg
City: Luxembourg City
Phone: 00352 405 750
Fax: 00352 405 760
Polish Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Poland in Luxembourg
2, rue de Pulvermuhl L-2356
Romanian Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Romania in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
41, Boulevard de la Petrusse, L-2320 Luxembourg
Phone: (00) (352) 455159 or 455151
Fax: (00) (352) 455163
Russian Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Russia in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Chateau de Beggen L-1719 Luxembourg
Phone: +352 422-333, 422-929
Fax: +352 422-334
Seychelles Consulate in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Honorary Consulate of Syechelles in Luxembourg
74, Avenue Victor Hugo, L , 1750 Luxembourg
Phone: + 352-22-44-75
Fax: + 352-46-02-61
Office Hours: 09H00 - 12H00, 14H00 - 17H00
Slovenian Consulate in Hesperange, Luxembourg
Consulate of Slovenia in Hesperange, Luxembourg
280, Route de Thionville
Phone: (+35-2) 466479-1
Fax: (+35-2) 466479-37
South African Consulate in No 2 Place Winston Churchill, Luxembourg
South African Honorary Consulate
BP 425 l-2014, Luxembourg, -, -, -
City: No 2 Place Winston Churchill
Phone: + 352 44 66 440
Fax: + 352 44 25 55
Spanish Embassy in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg
Embassy of Spain in Luxembourg
4, Bld. Emmanuel Servais
City: Luxembourg City
Swazi Consulate in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Honorary Consulate of the Kingdom of Swaziland
Place de Nancy 6, 2212 Luxemburg, Luxembourg
Phone: (+352) 454397
Fax: (+352) 440354
Swedish Embassy in Luxemburg, Luxembourg
Embassy of Sweden, Luxemburg, Luxembourg
2, rue Heinrich Heine, L-1720 Luxemburg, Luxembourg
Phone: +352 (-) 26 64 61
Fax: +352 (-) 29 69 09
Office Hours: Monday, Wednesday, Thursday 9.00 a.m.-12.00 noon, Tuesday 2.00-4.30 p.m. Visa (applications and processing): Monday, Wednesday, Thursday 9.00 a.m.-12.00 noon, Tuesday 2.00-4.30 p.m. Phone hours: Monday-Friday 08.30 a.m.-5.00 p.m.
American Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
U.S. Embassy in Luxembourg, Luxembourg
22, Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535
Office Hours: Monday through Friday: 8:30 a.m. - 5:30 p.m.
Uruguayan Consulate in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg
Consulate of Uruguay in Luxembourg
7, Val St. Croix
City: Luxembourg Ville
Phone: +352-22-11 90 - 312
Luxembourg has over 315,000 main telephone lines in use and over 216,000 mobile phones in use, it uses a highly developed completely automated system of buried cables to carry communications across the country and into neighbouring European countries Germany, France and Belgium but also uses 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cables to carry communications internationally from Europe to North America and beyond.
Over 100,000 people use the internet in Luxembourg and there are a large number of ISPs that use the top level country code .lu. Additionally, it should be mentioned that large-scale internet integration projects are being utilized throughout the country, for example, Hotcity, a city-wide WiFi bubble, is being fitted in some of the busiest districts in the country.
There are few TV Broadcast stations in the country but there are over 300,000 Televisions owned across the country. Additionally, the country owns over 300,000 Radios and Radio Broadcast stations are operated on AM 2, FM 9 and Shortwave 2.
Weather & Climate
Luxembourg is known to have an Oceanic climate which typically has warm summers and cool winters, a temperate climate of sorts, with no particularly hot or sharply cold peaks or dips. Precipitation is fairly evenly spread out throughout the year but in Luxembourg specifically it’s known that at the end of its summer months of June to August there’s a higher amount of rainfall, due to this higher amount of rainfall as well as the even distribution throughout the year, there’s no dry season as is atypical in other Oceanic climatic countries. Luxembourg is known to share this climate with most of Europe.
Known for its high-speed internet access and quick routes to all the nearby attractions, including the Modern Art Museum and Philharmonic, the Melia in Luxembourg City has huge rooms with a modern style and a warm welcome by staff.
Le Place d’Aremes Hotel entails a cooler and sleeker design but keeps to its traditional routes as an amalgamation of seven houses. Staff are reported to be incredibly attentive and the hotel hosts a one-star restaurant which serves breakfast, lunch and dinner.
The Seven Hotel in Esch-sur-Alzette features an incredibly modernistic style to each of its rooms and incorporates bright colours into bland spaces for a balanced yet vibrant feel, guests report that this hotel caters for their guests needs and is located away from the hustle and bustle of the city for a more scenic and relaxed arrangement.
A little further out still, the Ibis, like many of its chain-hotels across Europe, provides high-quality rooms for affordable prices and welcomes guests warmly into a chilled out environment, perfect for that swift getaway.
Featuring a traditional Luxembourgish breakfast, Le Petit Poete provides quick access to the city of Echternach through its brilliant location directly in the city centre; this of course also provides a brilliant view across the city and allows its residents a choice of several different restaurants.
The Hotel Au Vieux Moulin in Echternach is a large-scale Victorian villa built in the beautiful countryside, almost on the corner of the city. The rooms are furnished with beautiful interior décor and feature breakfast, lunch and dinner menus for any time of the day.
Bringing Children into Luxembourg require no more effort to be taken than would be taken with an Adult and Children will be susceptible to the same requirements required of adults to enter the country.
To bring a Cat or Dog into Luxembourg you will require several documents:
A certificate stating that your Dog or Cat is vaccinated against rabies issued more than 30 days but no longer than 1 year before transit.
A certificate that your Dog or Cat is in good health and free from all infectious illnesses that is no older than 14 days.
Rabbits also require several documents including:
A certificate stating that the animal was examined shortly before departure and that it was in good health and fit for travel.
The names and addresses of the people both shipping and receiving the rabbit should also be supplied.
These certificates must be signed and approved by both your local veterinarian and an official state veterinarian. A microchip and/or tattoo should be administered to the pet for identification purposes.
Public schools in Luxembourg are free and run by the government, beginning as early as age 3, children enter Enseignement Fondamentale (Fundamental Education) which consists of pre-school and primary school. However, only when a child reaches age four do they enter primary school, which is compulsory.
Upon passing through Primary school at age 11, the student enters secondary school which lasts between six and seven years. Although it is only compulsory for the child to be in full-time education up until 16. Schools typically are broken down into two main types, the Enseignement Secondaire (Secondary Education) and Enseignement Secondaire Technique (Technical Secondary Education). The former uses a system not dissimilar from those in the UK and US to prepare the student for college and university-level further education courses, whilst the latter normally incorporates a certificate or diploma course and allows students to develop a more focused skillset. There are also specialized schools for Sports, Languages, Adult Education and Post-Primary (for those who could not complete the primary level of education).
Being the only fully-fledged University in Luxembourg, the University of Luxembourg dominates the Higher Education scene in the country. However, several smaller universities do exist in the country and there are numerous campuses across the region for all of these universities, as well as incorporating sister branches from the US, UK and other nations.
It’s important to mention that in all public (and most private) schools that Trilingualism is featured heavily and Luxembourgish is spoken from a pre-school level onwards, then French is introduced in Primary School and German becomes the dominant language in Secondary school whilst additional languages such as Spanish, Italian and Latin are available at the same time. At a University level, English is used frequently with French and German as well. During all levels of pre-university level education, at least 50% of the hours used are used to teach languages.
Applicants looking to work in Luxembourg will require at least 2 years of experience and must have a Bachelor’s Degree in Education or a relevant Degree in their field as well as a PGCE. The applicant must also be Western-trained (US, UK, Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, Scotland, Australia and South Africa).
Although TEFL, CELTA and other certificates are not considered teaching qualifications, they will definitely improve your chances of being considered if you have these in addition to all other necessary qualifications.
Make sure to check our guide on VISA and Work Permit Restrictions.
Starting with Rent, costs in Luxembourg are high and rate at similar costs to the United Kingdom and other wealthy European Economies. For instance, a one bedroom apartment in the city centre will set you back EUR 1,200 ($1700 or £990) while outside the city centre you’ll be looking at a lesser EUR 930 ($1300 or £770). Meanwhile, a three bedroom apartment inside the city centre will cost you EUR 2400 ($3300 or £2000) and outside of the city centre it’ll cost closer to EUR 1700 ($2400 or £1400).
Food is generally cheaper but still somewhat expensive. For example, a litre of water will cost you EUR 6.50 ($9 or £5.30), a meal in a restaurant will cost between EUR 15 and EUR 70 ($21 to $97 or £12 to £58), a litre of milk will set you back EUR 1.10 ($1.50 or £0.90), 500g of bread costs around EUR 1.50 ($2.10 or £1.20) and 12 eggs will cost you around EUR 1.70 ($2.40 or £1.40).
Luxuries are similarly expensive with a litre of beer costing around EUR 2.60 ($3.60 or £2.10), a packet of cigarettes costing around EUR 5 ($6.90 or £4.10) and a bottle of mid-range wine setting you back around EUR 6 ($8.30 or £4.90).
The Irish Club of Luxembourg exists to bring together those wishing to preserve Irish culture and host a variety of events for their members exclusively including a St Patrick’s Dinner Party, a Ski Trip, an Irish Clubs’ Night, Christmas and New Years’ Parties and much more!
A dedicated group of theatricals, Pirate Productions produces a range of plays, theatre productions, musicals and more and welcome new members of any skill level to join and take part in new plays.
Allowing adults of all levels of musical experience and training to join from complete newbies to masterful singers, Voices International is a choir with a focus on producing performances of all styles including rock, jazz, blues, soul, gospel, barbershop, classical and more.
Perhaps you’d like the Rotaract Club? It aims to bring peace and international understanding to the world through a community-level ability of productive thinking and individual skill development, it’s open to all those over 18.
Or maybe you’re more of a fantasy person with a focus on medieval or sci-fi culture? The Science Fiction & Fantasy Society of Luxembourg holds a variety of events all year around and attends LuxCon, the biggest comic, movie and game convention of Luxembourg, each and every year.
Are you looking for a more competitive outlook but don’t wish to strain yourself? The Curling Society of Luxembourg competes on a national and international level to push the sport to new limits each and every day through practice, theory, training and a bit of good ‘ol fashioned elbow grease.
Crime in Luxembourg is almost non-existent but does exist in two forms; Corruption and Prostitution (and Human Trafficking).
Corruption occurs primarily in politics (around 53% of surveyed households by Transparency International considered political parties to be corrupt with a further 33% holding the same view on Parliament) but it does occur to some small degree in business as well.
Luxembourg is a destination country for women trafficked for sexual exploitation and labour (often forced on both accounts) and has had women trafficked in from mainly other European countries (mainly Bulgaria and Ukraine) but also, more recently, from Africa and Latin America. However, the government has recently taken many steps in an attempt to cease this activity and has convicted and sentences six traffickers in 2007. Women caught in forced or paid prostitution are usually deported back to their country of origin. Convicted traffickers are typically sentenced for smuggling, human trafficking, procuring prostitution and often, rape.
112 - General Emergency (Ambulance, Police & Fire)