The Arab Republic of Egypt is widely known for having one of the longest histories of any modern country, being inhabited since the 10th
Millennium BC and Ancient Egyptians existing in the region as a civilization since the 4th
Millennium BC. The country is home to over 86 million people and covers over one million square kilometres of land.
The country is split into 27 governorates, which in turn are further split into regions each with its own capital city. It shares borders with Gaza, Israel, Sudan and Libya and has two ocean boundaries with the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, becoming the bridge between Africa and Asia.
Stone Age History
Mankind’s influence in Egypt spans as far back as 40,000 BC where Aterian industry tools have been found in the region, as well as Khormusan industry tools dated to between 40,000 and 30,000 BC. The latter tools are more advanced in nature and are not just made out of stone, but out of animal bones and hematite (iron ore) as well. These cultures were likely reliant on fishing as well as hunter-gathering.
The only complete Late Stone Age skeleton found in Africa being dated to as early as 35,000 BC was also found in the region, however, the Khormusan it belonged to had their industry wiped around 16,000 BC shortly after the arrival of the Halfan culture which appeared around 18,000 to 15,000 BC. The Halfans were similar to their predecessors, the Khormusans, but also developed artwork through stone rock paintings. The Qadan, Sebilian and Harifian cultures also flourished alongside the Halfans but disappeared between 12,000 and 10,000 BC.
Around 9000 BC, groups began to permanently around the Nile River and around 6000 BC, large-scale civilizations had begun. It’s believed that the Faiyum A Culture is the most likely candidate and this group developed Weaving as an art form as well as possibly agriculture as a means to sustain the growing populations. In lower Egypt, the Merimde culture began to appear around 5000 BC and developed pottery and domesticated cattle, pigs, sheep and goats alongside agricultural developments. Near modern Cairo, the El Omari culture also developed around 4000 BC and the Maadi culture made significant developments, far ahead of that of the rest of the world, with Copper tools and stronger burial practices.
At the same time, the Tasian culture developed pottery colouring techniques in Upper Egypt and the Badarian culture developed pottery further into Blacktop-ware as well as more refined, sharper and better shaped blades between 4400 BC and 4000 BC. The Amratian culture lasted between 4000 and 3500 BC and was known to have developed Blacktop-ware further whilst starting to use Obsidian and Gold in their wares. Trade between the oases began around this time and continued well into the Gerzean culture of 3500 BC. The Gerzean culture rapidly developed artwork on their pottery and increased their food supplies through more intense agriculture and trade with nearby Asia, which brought in Silver.
Around 3200 BC the first known Pharaoh of Egypt began his reign, Iry-Hor, whom is associated with the Egyptian god Horus, god of the sun. Ka, or as he is also known, Sekhen, succeeded him, reigning for an indeterminate amount of time, like his predecessor. During the course of the next two reigns, the first and second Scorpion Kings would rule, one of which is believed to be Meni whom first united Upper and Lower Egypt, and the second is thought to be Narmer took rule in 3100 BC and made the country flourish subsequently. Hor-Aha succeeded Narmer and is thought to have ruled for significantly longer than his predecessors until he in turn was succeeded by Djer whom ruled for 41 years until the end of the Stone Age.
Bronze Age History
For the next three hundred years, the Sahara rapidly dried up and the communities along the Nile unified to survive. Cereal agriculture began becoming used on a mass scale and the construction of the Mastabas, predecessors to the Step Pyramid, and funeral practices expanded greatly. This in turn set in place the foundations for the first full Egyptian civilizations.
The first Pharaoh of the Old Kingdom, Djoser, ordered the construction of the first Step Pyramid in the capital city of Memphis in the 27th
Century BC, under guidance of his vizier and grand architect, Imhotep. Additionally, politics became rapidly revamped as separate Egyptian states came under the rule of the Pharaoh and former rulers became governors in their own states. The Pharaoh became known as a god who ensured the flooding cycles for crops and the self-belief of a ‘chosen people’ was perpetuated among the Egyptian populace.
In 2613 BC, Sneferu began his reign and constructed the most labour intensive pyramids; the Pyramid of Meidum, the Bend Pyramid of Dahshur and the Red Pyramid of North Dahshur. He in turn was succeeded by his son, Khufu, in 2589 BC, and built the Great Pyramid of Giza. After his crown was passed to his sons, Djedefra, the older son, took reign for four years before Khafra, his younger son, took reign and built the Sphinx of Giza.
At this point military expeditions began up into Canaan (Modern day Levant) and Nubia (Modern day Ethiopia) and they continued well into the reign of Menkaure (2494 BC) and Shepseskaf (2472 BC) the former of which built the smallest Pyramid in Giza. Userkaf took over at some point and focused construction works less on Pyramids and more on Sun Temples devoted to the god Ra. His son, Sahure, took over rule in 2487 BC and drove military expeditions into Punt (believed to be Modern Somalia, Sudan, Eritreat and Djibouti). He in turn was succeeded by Nefirirkare Kakai, then by Neferefre in 2455 BC, and then by Shepseskare Isi, who was quickly deposed by Neferefre’s brother Nyuserre Ini in 2445 BC. The last two kings of the 25th
Century BC were Menkauhor Kaiu in 2421 BC and Djedkare Isesi in 2414 BC.
Egypt rapidly expanded their economy, diversifying into ebony, frankincense, copper, myrrh and gold trades as well as cedar, ivory and aromatic resins. Unas took the throne in 2375 BC and is known to have begun the practice of adding Pyramid texts to burial sites, but the power of the Pharaoh slowly eroded away as regional governments evolved into dynasties.
In 2278 BC, Pepi II took over and ruled for over eighty years, this set about internal disorders as succession struggles began, as well as a famine and drought in his later years, and upon his death in 2184 BC, the country went into a state of civil war. Thus the dark ages of Egypt began and lasted for over a hundred years.
The Nomarchs took control of the region, each fighting for control and attempting to establish their presence further by building monuments, burial sites and temples whilst trying to destroy each other’s. The rivalries and warefare between the Nomarchs grew intense as the central government of Egypt repeatedly tried to establish peace diplomatically, they even went as far as to rapidly throw kings on the throne just to have them replaced shortly afterwards.
Eventually, Kheti I took the throne as a tyrant king and ruled the country with a violent iron fist. He was succeeded by Kheti II, a more peace-loving pharaoh but inexperienced militarily, which lead to issues in the Delta. However, his successor, Kheti III was able to bring order to the Delta. At the same time, Upper Egypt and the ruling Heracleopolitan kingdom was invaded by Intef I of Lower Egypt, his successor, Intef II began the assault on the north and Intef III captured the largest cities of the region, allowing the now-called Theban kings to move on the ruling Heracleopolitan kingdom’s strongholds. Mentuhotep first began the drive into these strongholds and his successor, Mentuhotep II, was able to finish the attacks and reunify Egypt, passing away in 2010 BC. Mentuhotep III took over after his father’s passing and constructed a line of forts along the Asian border to repel attacks from Asian invaders as well as sending military campaigns into Punt.
After his passing in 1998 BC, seven kingless years passed before the taking of the throne by his son Mentuhotep IV. However, his name’s absence from many recorded lists of kings prompts the possibility that his vizier, Amenemhat I (who was also the next pharaoh and recorded not to have been of royal birth) may have usurped his throne during a brief civil war in 1991 BC.
Amenemhat I was the first pharaoh to develop and keep a well-trained standing army and many pharaohs after him followed his example. He pushed his campaigns into the Delta region further and up scaled the defences to Asia. He also built a capital city in the north and used propaganda to boost his authority. Despite these efforts though, the Nomarchs once again gained considerable power and were only held back by Amenemhat I and his son (and successor) Senusret I. Senusret I was succeeded by his son Amenemhat II, born to him through his wife and sister, Queen Neferu. Amenemhat II let the Normarch system become hereditary again and focused his efforts on both peace treaties with Modern day Syria and Palestine as well as pushing military campaigns into southern Nubia until the end of his reign in 1895 BC.
Senusret II, Amenemhat II’s successor, ceased all military activity and focused more heavily on local issues such as irrigation and construction works. However, due to the short nature of his rule, ending in 1878 BC, many of these works remained unfinished. Senusret III succeeded him and once again pushed military campaigns into Nubia, conquering it through a mix of new transportation methods he had developed (such as an old canal) and by building a sequence of forts throughout the country to help establish influence. The forts sent regular reports to the capital detailing the natives’ movement as a means of security and allowed the natives to trade with the country through the forts alone. Amenemhat III, his son, succeeded him and brought Egypt to new heights of prosperity through exploitation of the country’s resources through invitations to the Asian populace to come work on Egypt’s monuments. He was succeeded by Amenemhet IV who only reigned for nine years and saw the dynasty’s power weaken significantly due to drier weather conditions and poor crop harvest, as well as having to succeed his father’s significantly long reign proven to cause succession problems. He was succeeded by Sobekneferu, the first female pharaoh of Egypt, but she only reigned for four years, passing away without heir in 1802 BC.
For almost ten years there was no one on the throne until in 1794 BC when Wegaf, who was previously the Great Overseer of the Troops, took the throne. The kings for the next two decades rapidly changed and their names are obscured, only attested on a few monuments and graffiti. Following this, stronger kings ruled for the next eighty years, ending with Neferhotep I whom maintained effective control of Upper Egypt, the Delta and Nubia, making him considered to be the strongest of the kings of the 18th
However, the states of Avaris and Xois began to rule themselves at some point during this period through revolts against Neferhotep I’s successor, Sobekhotep IV, who reigned from 1694 BC to 1684 BC. He in turn was succeeded by Sobekhotep V but only ruled for three years, being succeeded by Wahibre Ibiau, then Merneferre Ai. However, they slowly lost their grip on the rest of the country and by 1650, the government had once again fallen apart. The Hyksos, Asian groups inhabiting Egypt’s Avaris region, began to take control of the country and had six kings of Hyksos origin rule on the throne from this point onwards. However, the dates of the first four are unknown but their names are verified in the Turin King list as Salitis, Sakir-Har, Khyan and one unknown king.
In 1590 BC, Apophis (also known as Apepi I) of the Hyksos ruled the country, usurping the monuments of previous pharaohs and having his own name written over them such as the Sphinxes of Amenemhat II. Khamudi succeeded him in 1550 BC but only ruled for ten years, being driven out with the rest of the Hyksos peoples by Ahmose I in 1539 BC. Ahmose I retook the government for the Theban royal house and reconquered the Delta region, expelling out the Hyksos. Following this he retook Nubia and Canaan and reopened the quarries, mines and trade routes as well as undertaking large-scale construction projects. In 1506 BC, Ahmose I passed away without heir and Thutmose I took over rule through marriage into the royal family and pushed Egypt’s borders further north into the Euphrates and further south as well.
Thutmose I was succeeded by his son Thutmose II, in 1493, whom in turn was succeeded by his half-sister and wife Hatshepsut in 1479 BC. Hatshepsut ruled for over 20 years after her husband passed away until her stepson Thutmose III became pharaoh in 1479 BC. Hatshepsut’s rule saw widespread peace and prosperity but Thutmose III is largely considered to be one of the greatest pharaohs of Egypt, creating the largest empire the country had ever seen and conducting over seventeen military campaigns, conquering Syria, Canaan and Nubia completely and capturing over 350 cities. Thutmose III was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep II in 1427 BC, Amenhotep ruled until 1397 BC when his son, Thutmose IV took over.
It’s thought that Thutmose IV ousted his older brother and restored the Sphinx of Giza, as well as supressing an uprising in Nubia. He was succeeded by his son Amenhotep III in 1388 BC whom is recorded as having started some of the largest scale constructions that the country had ever seen and likely shared the throne in his old age with his son Amenhotep IV, whom later changed his name to Akhenaten. Akhenaten moved the capital to Amarna and Egypt became a monotheistic country, believing solely in the god Aten, also believed to be the sun itself. Upon his passing in 1334 BC, the country reverted back to its former beliefs and was ruled by Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten, although it’s unknown how long and in which order each ruled for. Tutankhamun is known widely as the next in line however, and he took over in 1332 BC at an age no older than ten, ruling for nine years and establishing Amun as supreme god, but allowing the worship of lesser deities as well, restoring traditional festivals. However, he passed away at only 19, in what is speculated to be a chariot accident, and left no heirs, only producing two stillborn children with his half-sister and wife Ankhesenamun. Tutankhamun’s vizier Ay ruled for a short period of time until 1323 BC, then after almost twenty years his royal spokesman, Horemheb, took the throne in 1306 BC and ruled until 1292 BC.
In 1292 BC, Ramesses I, the son of troop commander Seti, ascended to the throne in his old age and ruled for two years until 1290 BC, when his son and crowned prince, Seti I, became pharaoh upon his passing. Seti I pushed campaigns once again to retake Canaan and Syria and moved to quell the Hittite state but failed to destroy them as a potential danger to the country. He was succeeded by his son, Ramesses II, whom is widely considered to be the greatest and most powerful Pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. Ramesses II rapidly drove military might into Syria, Nubia and even Libya, conquering all three with mighty ferocity. Additionally, a peace treaty was accorded with the Hittites and through Ramesses II’s ingenious political prowess he built strong ties with the group, dissuading other attackers. Ramesses II also started some of the largest-scale construction works the country had ever seen, building large scale statues of himself all across the region. He passed away in 1213 BC at the age of around 90 years old and was succeeded by Merneptah who ruled until 1203 BC when he passed away at the age of over 80 years old and is accredited with the destruction of the Israelites and the state of Israel. Setu II and Amenmesse are believed to have ruled at this time but it’s not known in which order, or even if at the same time. Their rule came to an end around 1197 BC.
Siptah took control in 1197 BC and ruled for six years until he was succeeded by his stepmother, Twosret, in 1191 BC, and ruled in turn until 1189 BC. It’s unknown how Setnakhte took the throne but it’s theorized that he either usurped it or was a member of a minor line of the Ramesses royal family, in any case, he ruled until 1186 BC and was able to stabilize the political unrest successfully, installing his son, Ramesses III, as pharaoh in 1186 BC. Ramesses ruled for over thirty years until he was murdered as part of the Harem Conspiracy by Tiye, one of Ramesses three wives, whom wished for her son to inherit the throne over Ramesses III’s chosen heir, Ramesses IV. Ramesses III was murdered via a deep knife cut across the throat which went down all the way to the spine.
However, they were caught and executed by Ramesses IV which assumed rule from his late father. Ramesses IV attempted to build extensive works but he passed away before most were completed in 1149 BC. His son, Ramesses V took control but passed away only four years later in 1145 BC, his son, Ramesses VI took over at this point and ruled for a further eight years until 1137 BC when his son, Ramesses VII took over, and in turn, his son, Ramesses VII took over and ruled for a further seven years until 1129 BC. Ramesses VIII only ruled for a single year before his son, Ramesses IX, took over, and in turn, his son, Ramesses X took over in 1111 BC. The most poorly documented king out of those sharing the Ramesses royal name, he passed away only four years later and was succeeded by Ramesses XI, whom ruled until 1078 BC. By this point however, the royal family’s power had severely declined.
Smendes took the throne in 1077 BC and ruled for twenty five years until 1052 BC when he was succeeded by his son, Amenemnisu. Amenemnisu was, in turn, succeeded by Psusennes I, whom ruled between 1047 BC and 1001 BC, before being succeeded by his son, Amenemope, whom ruled until 992 BC at the end of the Bronze Age.
Iron Age History
By this point in time, Egypt had built strong ties with the neighbouring Libya and due to the royal family’s rapidly waning power, they were replaced by the first Libyan king Shoshenq I in 945 BC. Shoshenq I unified the country once again and set his own son as the High Priest of Amun, giving him control of the country’s clergy whilst suppressing multiple groups and rebel factions. Osorkon I took the throne from his father, Shoshenq I, in 922 BC, and his reign ushered in a new prosperous period for Egypt, building new temples and conquering Israel and Judah in 923 BC. He was succeeded by his son, Shoshenq II, in 887 BC.
Osorkon I’s other son, Takelot I, took over less than two years later from Shoshenq II, however, due to royal disputes his control was severely limited and upon the rule of his son, Osorkon II, in 872 BC, the royal family found that their branch lines had begun harshly competing with them for the throne. Nevertheless, Osorkon II was able to retain religious control of the country through his son, Nimlot C, by appointing him as the High Priest of Amun, allowing Osorkon II to take complete control of the united Egyptian region and allowing him to commence large-scale construction works and lead the country into a new age of prosperity. Additionally, Osorkon II was able to cease the expansion of the nearby Assyrian Empire through allied military efforts with Israel and Lebanon. However, upon his death in 873 BC the country was once again split with Shoshenq III controlling Lower Egypt and Osorkon II’s son, Takelot II, ruling Upper Egypt. The two ruled their respective divisions until 798 BC and 790 BC respectively.
Lower Egypt received a new king, Shoshenq IV, of whom little is known, and Upper Egypt received pharaoh Osorkon III, whom was also the son of Takelot II and high priest of Amun instated during his father’s reign. Shoshenq IV ruled until 785 BC when Pami, the attested third son of Shoshenq III, took over and in turn, his son, Shoshenq V, took over in 778 BC, ruling until 740 BC. Meanwhile in Upper Egypt, Osorkon III ruled for 28 years until his son, Takelot III, took over in 740 BC. By 740 BC however, Lower Egypt lost power as the Nubian king Piye and his forces took control of this part of the country, capturing the land as far north as Memphis. This in turn put political pressure between the Nubian royalty in Lower Egypt and the native Egyptian royalty of Upper Egypt. Taking full advantage of the political instability, the Kushite forces nearby pushed into the region and took much of Egypt’s territory. By the end of the 8th
Century BC, Assyria had conquered most of Egypt, occupied Thebes and sacked Memphis.
The Egyptian forces remaining tried again and again to expel the invaders but it wasn’t until Psamtik I’s reign in 664 BC that Egypt was reunified once more and taking independence from the Assyrian Empire, restoring Egypt’s prosperity in the process. Additionally, he established a new capital, Sais, and was able to effectively deter Babylonian invaders time and time again. His son, Necho II, took over from him in 610 BC for fifteen years and led military campaigns with the now-allied Assyrian forces against the Babylonians and drove their forces up into Megiddo, killing their king, Josiah, in the process. Later on he also was able to drive the Babylonian forces out of Syria in 606 BC and following this he began forcing new alliances with the Carians of Ancient Anatolia and the Greeks of Ancient Greece, gaining a naval force through Greek recruits in the process.
His son, Psamtik II, took over in 595 BC and ruled for a short six years, although he built many monuments and had impressive military prowess, crushing Kush as an example, it’s believed he had a strong hatred of his father as he removed his father’s name from various monuments across the region. His son, Apries, took over in turn, and reigned until 570 BC, but, to the shame of his people, he lost Jerusalem to Babylonian forces in 586 BC and his own soldiers mutinied during his attempted intervention of Judah’s political scene. Additionally, he lost Libya to Greek invaders.
Through these failures, the Egyptian people turned their support to general Amasis II, a successful military leader who ousted Apries. Apries attempted to retake the throne with the help of Babylonian forces but was killed by Amasis II’ militia shortly afterwards. Amasis II slowly built relations with Cyrus the Great of the Persian Empire and Cyrus requested a good Egyptian physician from Amasis II. Amasis II reportedly exiled an Egyptian physician, forcing him to leave his family to go to Persia and serve Cyrus. In revenge, the doctor suggested to Cyrus that he request a daughter from Amasis II to marry, in order to solidify bonds with Egypt and Cyrus agreed to this arrangement. Upon requesting a daughter from Amasis II, he was convinced that his daughter would be destined to be a concubine for Cyrus and instead sent the daughter of the ousted pharaoh Apries, Nitetis, to Cyrus instead. However, upon meeting with Cyrus, Nitetis explained Amasis II’s trickery and Cyrus grew furious, vowing revenge upon Amasis II. However, Amasis II passed away long before Cyrus reached him and his son, Psamtik III, took over rule upon his death in 526 BC. However, only six months after he took the throne, the country was overrun by the Persian forces and he was executed by them shortly afterwards.
Cyrus the Great ruled over Egypt from 525 BC onwards, remaining there until 522 BC and passing away while traveling back to Persia. He was succeeded by his son Bardiya, who ruled Egypt for a few months until Darius I took over and revoked the late Cyrus’ degrees over Egypt, winning the support of the priestly class which had previously been suppressed over Cyrus. When the clergy had been won, the rest of the country fell like dominoes in support to Darius I. Furthermore, Darius I built waterways, set in place legal systems with some of Egypt’s best and brightest and was recognized by the Egyptian people as their king.
Upon passing away in 486 BC, his son, Xerxes I, otherwise known as Xerxes the great, took rule and subdued a great revolt in the nation until he was murdered by Artabanus, commander of the royal bodyguard, in 465 BC. He in turn was murdered by Xerxes I’s son, Artaxerxes I and took control of the throne the same year, supressing an even bigger revolt in Egypt than his father had to suppress in 460 BC that had been led by the son of Psamtik III, Inaros II, and had been assisted by Greek naval forces sent from Athens. In 424 BC, he was shortly succeeded by his son, Xerxes II, before he was murdered by his brother, Sogdianus, whom was then murdered by Darius II whom took rule the following year. The Persian kings between 423 BC and 336 BC had little interest in Egypt and their governors for the region are poorly documented, many are not known at all, but it’s known that during the rule of Darius III, Sabaces, Egypt’s governor under Darius III, fought and lost against Alexander the Great of Macedonia. A few years later in 332 BC, the country was handed over to the Macedonian Empire without resistance, being ruled by Alexander and his successors. Alexander built a new large-scale capital, Alexandria, in Egypt and showed respect for the Egyptian peoples’ beliefs, which won them over largely. He passed away in 323 BC and a succession crisis began with his generals competing for the ruling position, he had previously left Cleomenes to rule Egypt in his stead but upon passing, Perdiccas became regent of the Empire until a successor was chosen and set Ptolemy as ruler of Egypt in the same year. However, the Macedonian Empire fell apart through power struggles and Ptolemy defended the nation against an invasion from his now-enemy Perdiccas in 321 BC and fought against the Alexandrian successors for the next twenty years. Pharaoh Ptolemy I was crowned formerly as ruler of Egypt in 305 BC. With few exceptions, it became tradition for all kings and queens of the Ptolemaic dynasty to be called Ptolemy and Cleopatra respectively.
Securing the kingdom completely in 295 BC with the taking of Cyprus, Ptolemy I shared rule with his son, Ptolemy II and his queen, Berenice, in 285 BC, passing away two years later in 283 BC at the age of 84. Ptolemy II rose to the throne upon his father’s passing and although he was not a military strategist, he had no need to be, for his father had left him a kingdom strong and prosperous, and through it Ptolemy II was able to designate widespread peace throughout the kingdom and spread the influence of culture, increasing the literacy throughout the kingdom and increasing the size and scale of the Library of Alexandria phenomenally and focusing his energies on making Alexandria the intellectual, artistic and economic capital of the world. His son, Ptolemy III, however, succeeded his father in 246 BC and was more hell-bent on war than his predecessors and wished to take revenge for the political murder of his sister, Queen Berenice, and her child, and marched into Seleucid territory and had the previous Seleucid king’s wife and head conspirator for his sister’s murder, Laodice I, killed. Following this, his rage subsided and he returned to Egypt and no longer engaged in war. He was succeeded by his son, Ptolemy IV, who weakly and corruptly controlled the kingdom, as is apparent through his decisions swayed by royal relatives and his mistress, Agathoclea. His infant son ruled and became corrupt like his father in his adulthood, passing away in 180 BC.
Succeeded like he did his father with his infant son, Ptolemy VI, taking the throne upon his death, Ptolemy VI was quickly deposed by Seleucid king Antiochus IV and had Ptolemy VI’s younger brother, Ptolemy VII, installed as a puppet king. Eventually, Antiochus IV pulled out of Egypt and the two brothers, along with their sister, Cleopatra II, agreed to reign jointly but fell out quickly over petty squabbles, allowing the new Roman Empire to interfere and increase its influence in Egypt. However, Ptolemy VI regained control eventually but was killed in 145 BC when his armies defeated the Seleucid king Alexander Balas, but Ptolemy VI was killed in the process. Ptolemy VI was succeeded by his infant son, the other Ptolemy VII, but he was quickly dethroned and killed by his uncle, the previous Ptolemy VII who took the name Ptolemy VIII, becoming a cruel and vicious tyrant. Upon his death in 116 BC, he left the throne to his wife, Cleopatra III, and son, Ptolemy IX, but the latter was driven out of the country by the former as she chose to jointly reign with Ptolemy VIII’s youngest son, Ptolemy X.
In 88 BC, Ptolemy IX returned to the throne and took it until he died in 80 BC, he was succeeded by Ptolemy X’s son, Ptolemy XI, but was lynched by an Alexandrian mob after he murdered his stepmother, who was also his aunt, cousin and wife, and was succeeded by one of Ptolemy IX’s sons, Ptolemy XII. By this point, Rome had taken over the majority of Egypt as well as having annexed nearby Libya and Cyprus. Ptolemy XII was driven out of the country by an Alexandrian mob in 58 BC but he was restored to his post by the Romans in 55 BC. Ptolemy XII died in 51 BC and was succeeded by his son, Ptolemy XIII, and his daughter, Cleopatra VII, who was also his wife.
Cleopatra VII, known as one of Egypt’s most prominent and politically tact rulers ever, had already realized that with the death of her father, Ptolemy XII, Egypt’s absorption into the Roman Empire was inevitable. But this eighteen-year old girl felt she had little chance in the world of Roman politics, that is, until she realized how socially adept she was. In 48 BC, Julius Caesar arrived in Alexandria, which by this point had become a dominant centre of academic study and economic development for the Roman Empire, and he met Cleopatra VII, who through her social prowess convinced him to help her fully depose her brother and husband, Ptolemy XIII and help her to take the throne. A year later she married her younger brother, Ptolemy XIV and she became lovers with Caesar and bore him a son, Caesarion, before moving to Rome with Caesar in 45 BC.
However, he was murdered a year later in 44 BC and upon seeing Mark Anthony take charge, she supported him, becoming his lover and he began giving away parts of the Roman Empire to Egypt, specifically, to Cleopatra and her children. The other person in Rome’s power struggle at the time, Octavian, grew furious at Mark Anthony and declared war on Cleopatra, her navy being defeated by the forces of Octavian’s naval general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and reclaiming Egypt as a Roman province in 33 BC. Mark Anthony realized that he and Cleopatra were doomed and subsequently stabbed himself and died in her arms. Octavian entered Alexandria in 30 BC and Cleopatra tried to reconcile and negotiate with him in much the same way she had the two previous Roman Emperors, but he refused and in a panic she put an end to her life, it’s believed, with the bite from a venomous snake. Octavian subsequently had Caesarion killed but spared Cleopatra and Mark Anthony’s children, keeping them captive.
Egypt was first governed in 29 BC, by Gaius Cornelius Gallus whom established a protectorate over the southern frontier. Soon after, the second prefect, Aelius Gallus, in 26 BC, attempted to conquer parts of Arabia from Egypt, but did not succeed. The third prefect, Gaius Petronius, took over control of Egypt shortly afterwards and cleared the canals for irrigation to revive agriculture in the region. Following this, he marched into Sudan and took revenge for the attacks of Queen Imanarenat on the Egyptian peoples, and subsequently razed the city of Napata to the ground in 22 BC. The Romans ruled Egypt for the rest of the Iron Age as Cleopatra VII’s death signalled the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
1st Century – 15th Century History
Starting with the reign of Emperor Nero of Rome, Egypt underwent a new era of peace and prosperity with its city of Alexandria becoming a new capital for commerce, education and art mastery. In 70 AD, it became inhabited heavily by Jews, after the destruction of their capital, Jerusalem, as well as Greeks. This caused religious conflicts and saw a Jewish revolt occur during the reign of Emperor Trajan in 98 AD and subsequently saw the Jewish peoples become suppressed in the region and the loss of all privileges to Jews in Alexandria.
During the reign of Emperor Hadrian beginning in 117 AD, the Emperor visited Egypt and founded the city of Antinoopolis in the memory of his drowned lover, Antinous, and saw Greco-Romanization of many buildings throughout the region. During the reign of Antoninus Pius, the peoples of Egypt rebelled against oppressive taxation in 139 AD under leadership of the high priest Isidorus, which was eventually suppressed, but not without years of fighting.
When Caracalla ascended to the throne in 211 AD, he immediately granted Roman citizenship to all Egyptians to allow them to extort more taxes from the populace. More revolts broke out following these taxation shifts and in 269 AD, Queen Zenobia of Palmyra, Syria, retook Egypt back from the Romans and claimed to have been directly descended from Cleopatra VII, making her the Queen of Egypt. Sadly, she lost it to the Roman Emperor Aurelian retook it in 274 AD after besieging her defences for over four months. However, a duo of Egyptian generals, Probus and Domitius Domitianus, were able to lead successful revolts and become emperors, but they lost Alexandria to Emperor Diocletian in 298 AD.
As the country entered the 4rd
Century AD, the Roman Empire released its strong persecution of the Christian faith and many Egyptians began to convert across the country with an Archbishop being installed in Alexandria. Although the belief of the Egyptian religion, especially the worship of Isis, continued to persist, it was labelled a ‘pagan’ religion and suppressed greatly, with many sects being completely forced underground. However, before long the church in Alexandria underwent a great schism as the Christian world descended into civil war and rioting. During the course of the rioting, the Great Temple of Serapis, considered to be the pagan central stronghold, was destroyed. Later on that century, the Roman Empire was divided in two with Egypt on the Eastern side.
As the Eastern Empire as a whole became more oriental and less Greco-Roman, the Western Empire fell in the 5th
Century AD and Egypt saw the loss of its Pharaonic culture as Christianity became a dominant religion and force, with most of the prior temples and structures either being converted into Churches or becoming abandoned to the desert wastelands. In 415 AD, the Jews were expelled from the city of Alexandria under patriarch Cyril’s advice to the city governor, alleging that they were responsible for widespread massacre of Christians during the night time. More civil wars in the Church isolated Egypt further for the Empire and upon the death of philosopher Hypatia, Egypt saw the end of Hellenic culture in the country. However, Egypt continued to be a strong economic centre for the Empire well into the 6th
In 619 AD, Persian conquered Egypt once again, taking it from the Romans and capturing Alexandria. Emperor Heraclius attempted to retake it in 622 AD and upon the death of Khosrow of the Sassanids, whom controlled Persia at the time, his son, Kavadh II Seroe, returned Egypt to the Eastern Roman Empire, signing a peace treaty with Rome at the same time. However, Emperor Heraclius expelled many of the Christians in Egypt following his reinstating of imperial rule in 629 AD. This of course, put Egypt into a state of both political and religious turmoil, and upon the invasion of the Muslims in 639 AD, the Egyptian populace put up little resistance and the Muslim leader Amr Ibn Al-Aas took Alexandria in 641 AD. The Romans retook the city in 645 AD but a year later the Muslims retook the city again, ending Roman rule in the country.
Through tributes of money and food, the Christians of Egypt were excused military service and religious patronage in the Muslim world; however, the strong taxes imposed lead to a revolt in 725 AD and again in 739 AD and 750 AD. At the same time, the modern-day Egyptian language, Egyptian Arabic, began to develop after Arabic was made the official government language. In 750 AD, during the last revolt, the Umayyads lost power and were replaced by the Abbasids in government.
By the 9th
Century AD, the Abbasids had taken full control, but again, strong taxes led to revolts again in 828 AD and 831 AD. A Muslim governor was installed around the same time but Turk deputies tended to do most of the work while the governor himself resided mainly in Baghdad. Egypt briefly warred with Syria but peace was made in 891 AD.
Sent by the Caliph Al-Mahdi Obaidallah, the Fatimids invaded Egypt in 914 AD and took Alexandria in 919 AD, however, Egypt was liberated from the invaders in 921 AD via reinforcements from Baghdad. In Some forty years later in 969 AD, the Fatimid general Jawhar As-Siqilli, captured Egypt with ease, breezing through the Egyptian Army and transferring Egypt from the Eastern to the Western Caliphate. He immediately began about the construction of the modern-day capital city of Egypt, Cairo, which rapidly became a centre of learning and religion for the Muslim faith. However, the Carmathians of Damascus marched on the city and besieged both the Muslim general and the city itself, prompting a retaliation effort to drive them back out of Egypt. The Carmathians invaded again, however, and besieged the Caliph Al-Muizz in the city of Alexandria after his failed attempt to gain their support in 973 AD, they were driven out once more later on that year. Al-Aziz, vizier of the Caliph, perpetuated the idea that the Christians were in league with the Greek or Roman Empires, and subsequently persecuted them.
His son and successor, Al-hakim Bi-Amr Allah, was ironically born to a Christian mother and came to the throne at the age of eleven. However, despite his young age, he was able to conclude peace with the Greek Byzantine Empire but subsequently destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009 AD, provoking the start of the Crusades. He is also accredited with the construction of the great library in Cairo and the acceleration of academia in the city, however, he disappeared mysteriously in 1021 AD. During invasion by the Turks, Cairo was sacked and looted in 1068 AD but were driven out of the city some six years later. It also soon became apparent that the Hashashin had an underground network in the country, also known as the Assassins. As the crusades began, the ruler of Egypt, Al-Mustafa, assisted the Crusaders rescue Jerusalem from the Turkish Ortokids, but in the process he actually lost it to the Crusaders in 1099. Failing attempting to fix his error, he retired to Egypt once more.
In 1118 AD, Egypt became overrun by Baldwin I, leader of the Crusaders, who burnt the gates and mosques in the country but was forced to retreat when he became seriously ill. The new vizier of Egypt, Al-Afdal Shahanshah, was tasked with appointing a new Caliph when Caliph Ma’ad Al-Mustansir Billah died and appointed Al-Musta’li. Al-Musta’li was succeeded by Al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah, who resented Al-Afdal greatly and subsequently had him assassinated, it is rumoured, by the Assassins themselves, and replaced Al-Afdal with Al-Mamn. However, he lacked the prowess of his predecessor and lost Tyre to the Crusaders. They too lost Ascalon in Syria to the Crusaders in 1153 AD and a year later, the Caliph was murdered by the vizier, prompting a string of assassinations back and forth, until, in 1162 AD, Shawar took control of Cairo.
However, after just nine months he fled Cairo and returned with the army of Prince Nureddin of Damascus, Syria, to fight against the invading Frankish forces. Able to recapture Cairo from them, Shawar found that his Syrian allies wished to now possess Egypt and he called on the help of the Frankish king of Jerusalem, Amalric I, whom joined with him, besieged the Syrian inhabitants and pen ultimately granted them free passage out of the country. Furious, Nureddin sent his general, Shirkuh, with an army to retake Egypt and after defeating the allied forces of the Franks and Shawar, having Shirkuh’s nephew, Saladin, installed as prefect of Alexandria. The Crusading Franks tried to invade again in 1168 AD but were repelled once more. Shirkuh was appointed vizier but died a year later in 1169 AD, Saladin took his post shortly afterwards. This marked the end of the Fatimid caliph in 1171 AD. After Prince Nureddin died in 1174 AD, Saladin took the title of Sultan and began to fortify Egypt, before leaving his deputy, Karaksh, to rule it when he moved to fight the Crusader states in Syria. His son, Othman, succeeded him as ruler of Egypt in 1193 and allied himself with his uncle, Al-Adil I, to war against Saladin’s other sons. Following these brief battles, Al-Adil took power in 1200 AD.
Al-Adil died eighteen years later during the siege of Damietta and was succeeded to his son whom lost the city only a year later in 1219 AD to the Crusaders. However, Al-Adil’s son, Al-Kamil, was able to flood the Nile and cease the advance of the Crusaders, forcing them to evacuate Egypt in 1221 AD. However, to keep up strength against attacks from Damascus, Al-Kamil was forced to cede territories in modern-day Palestine and Syria to the Holy Roman Empire for their support. Taking the next role of Sultan in 1240 AD, Najm Al-Din recaptured Jerusalem for Egypt and launched campaigns with the allied forces of the Khwarezmians in Syria against the Crusaders and remaining Ayyubid forces. In 1249 AD, Damietta was lost again, this time to Louis IX of France in the Seventh Crusade. His son, Turanshah, defeated Louis IX and expelled the Crusaders out of Egypt, but was overthrown by the once-allied Mameluk Sultans. The first of these Sultans to rule was Aybak, whom began a war with Syria but was assassinated in 1257 AD and succeeded by Qutuz whom helped to fight off the Mongol threat of the time, defeating the army of Hulagu Khan in the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 AD but was assassinated on his way back to Egypt and was replaced by Baybars, ruling between 1260 and 1277 AD. He was succeeded by his son Barakah upon his death and he in turn was Qalawun, being married to Qalawun’s daughter and taking the opportunity of a forced abdication by Barakah to seize the throne from Barakah’s younger brother, Solamish. He in turn was succeeded by his son, Al-Ashraf Khalil, whom recaptured the last of the Crusader cities, Acre, in 1291 AD.
When Baghdad was sacked by the Mongols, Cairo became the centre of the Islamic world and the ruling Mamluk Sultans developed the city substantially, including most of the architecture in the city that still stands to this day. However, following 1347 AD, the Black Death pandemic swept across the nation and devastated it politically and economically as a result, killing much of the population. In 1377 AD, a revolt originating in Syria spread into Egypt and the government was overthrown and taken over by the Circassian Barkuk, he was forced out of the country in 1389 AD but retook Cairo in 1390 AD. Through the following two centuries, the Sultans of the Burji dynasty competed and overthrew each other repeatedly for control of Egypt, and while being able to conquer Cyprus, lost much of the population to plagues every few years, additionally falling to the will of the Ottoman Empire in 1517 AD and being put under control of Istanbul’s government. Despite being able to remain a Sultanate in Egypt, the Mamluk Sultans were now just pawns of the ruling Ottoman Empire.
16th Century – 19th Century History
After the Ottoman Sultan Selim I left Egypt to return to Istanbul in 1517 AD, he made Yunus Pasha the Grand Vizer and governor of Egypt but found that Yunus Pasha had begun a bribery and extortion syndicate, and so he shifted the office to Hayir Bey subsequently. Every year from then on out, the governor shifted to a new person through choice of the ruling Ottoman Sultan. However, upon hearing of execution orders coming for him from Constantinople, the fourth governor, Hain Ahmed Pasha, attempted to defy the Ottoman Empire but was still subsequently captured and executed.
The constant shifts in government caused the military to go out of control and began to frequently mutiny as a result starting in the 17th
Century; in 1604, governor Ibrahim Pasha was murdered by his soldiers and his head was set on the Bab Zuweila, a prominent landmark in the country. The Pasha line tried repeatedly to stop the military from taxing the general population and in 1609, a civil war broke out between the Pasha and the military, but the latter were defeated by Kara Mehmed Pasha in 1610 who executed the leaders of the military and banished the others to the Yemen, he subsequently reformed the financial and tax systems in the country. However, these shifts had brought disrespect upon the Pasha line by the Egyptian populace and in 1623, an order came to replace the governor Kara Mustafa Pasha with Cesteci Ali Pasha, but upon the new replacement’s arrival he was told by the capital cities of Cairo and Alexandria’s officials that he was not wanted. After a short struggle, Kara Mustafa Pasha was eventually succeeded by Bayram Pasha in 1626 but only ruled for five years before Ridwan Bey, a Mamluk emir, used his political prowess to control the country from 1631 to 1656. From this point onwards, each ruler began to extort money from his predecessor under the premise of ‘Money due to the treasury’ and the outgoing governor could not leave Egypt until he had paid it.
During the course of the next fifty years, the country’s governing forces became divided and by the 18th
Century, the country was being run by two Mameluk Beys rather than the singular Pasha Sultan and these two factions frequently warred with wars caused by the Pasha Sultan himself. In 1707, for instance, the Qasimites and the Fiqarites warred for eighty days due to troubles caused by the Pasha Sultan, and their leader, Qasim Iywaz, was killed. His post was given to his son, Ismail, and was able to reconcile the two factions during his sixteen-year rule, however, he was assassinated in 1724 by the Pasha Sultan. In his place, Shirkas Bey, leaders of the opposition faction, took command but was driven up into Upper Egypt in a coup d’état by one of his own, Dhu-‘I-Fiqar, and subsequently drowned to death when he tried to return with an army. Dhu-‘I-Fiqar was assassinated shortly afterwards in 1730 and was replaced by Othman Bey. However, he was forced to flee the country thirteen years later by Ibrahim and Ridwan Bey, who had begun a massacre of Beys, leaders of small tribal groups, as well as anyone thought to be in opposition to them. The two held both forces of Egypt under them as they controlled the government and their troops were so loyal that during a staged coup d’état by one of the Pashas, they were set free and forced the Pasha to flee from the country. This same scenario played out once more but in the years following this second attempt, Ibrahim was assassinated in 1755. Ridwan also perished shortly after through a similar end.
Their junior, Ali Bey, was determined to avenge them and began to rapidly amass alliances with the Mameluks and many others. These quick-formed bonds with various groups aroused the suspicions of Sheikh al-Balad Khalil Bey, and the latter subsequently arranged an attack on the former in the streets of Cairo. Ali fled the attack into Upper Egypt and by chance he met Salib Bey, whom harboured a grudge against Khalil for injuries inflicted. The two joined forces and returned to Cairo, defeating Khalil and forcing him to flee. Khalil was caught shortly afterwards and sent to Alexandria where he was killed via strangulation in 1750. Ali and Salib were elevated to the level of Sheikhs, but after Ali avenged his former master, Ibrahim, by killing his murderer, he was forced to flee due to the resentment brought forth by this act from the Beys. After arriving in Syria, the governor of Acre, Daher el-Omar formed a fast friendship with Ali and reinstated him back into his prior post. The Pasha of Egypt continued to battle Ali Bey and attempt to stir up trouble in his forces, but through Ali’s alliance with Daher in Acre, the Pasha was driven out of Egypt and Ali Bey began to rule over the country. In the years following, Ali began to install new reforms to the financial and judiciary systems, as well as sending his son-in-law, Abu-‘I-Dhahab, an officer, Ismail Bey and another officer, Ilasan Bey, to conquer the Yemen, the Eastern Shore of the Red Sea and Jidda in Saudi Arabia, respectively. In less than half a year, Ali Bey successfully controlled a large part of the Arabian Peninsula and he had installed his cousin as Sharif of Mecca, whom in turn bestowed on Ali the titles; ‘Sultan of Egypt’ and ‘Khan of the Two Seas’.
Ali Bey began to force alliances with the Venetian and Russian governments sent Abu-‘I-Dhahab with a 30,000 man strong military force to conquer Syria and, reinforced with their ally, Daher el-Omar, he easily took Palestine and Damascus, capturing Syria. However, he undertook secret negotiations with Ottoman remnants and suddenly changed course, evacuating Syria and marching with every force he could find back to Upper Egypt, taking Assiut in 1772 and taking Cairo shortly afterwards. Despite counter efforts by Ali and Ismail Bey, their military forces under Bastin Ismil joined Abu-‘I-Dhahab and continued to march on Cairo. The former two fled to Daher el-Omar in Acre for support and there, their luck reversed, as a Russian vessel with three thousand well-trained Albanians as well as food stores and ammunition. Ali sent his forces to recapture Jaffa and Gaza in Syria and gave the former to Daher el-Omar and set off for Egypt.
Abu-‘I-Dhahab had begun mass extortions and had made himself a Sheikh, aggravating the Egyptian masses, which in turn had prompted Ali’s return. In 1773, his forced battled with Abu’s and won during the first engagement, but subsequently lost later skirmishes and Ali, wounded and ill, was captured, dying several days later from his wounds and ailments in captivity in Cairo. The now-late Ali Bey’s supporters, such as Daher el-Omar, were punished via the losses of their territories in Syria via invasion by the now-victorious Abu-‘I-Dhahab, and those who deserted Ali Bey, such as Ismail and Ibrahim Bey, fought over succession for control of Egypt following Abu-‘I-Dhahab’s passing in 1775. By the end of the squabbles, Ibrahim and Murad Bey were in joint control of the government and retained control until 1798, when heavyweight world-conquerer Napoleon Bonaparte entered the scene.
In 1798, Bonaparte landed in Alexandria after carefully planning the securement of Egypt beforehand in an attempt to undermine British colonial efforts and bolster French trade and resources. Bonaparte heavily exercised authority over his troops, ensuring that they respect the faiths in the country at all times, using this as propaganda to suppress the Mamluk resistance. He easily captured Alexandria only hours after first landing and forced the enemy forces to flee.
Bonaparte left Alexandria in the capable hands of Kleber and moved on to take Chebreiss before advancing on to Embabe. As they drew near to the Pyramids of Giza, Napoleon saw that his 25,000 man strong army was exhausted and outnumbered by the 61,000 man strong Mamluk forces ahead. However, his army’s morale and military discipline were far stronger than the opposing forces and through this, 40,000 men of the Mamluk forces fled before the battle even started, and the remaining 21,000 were defeated during the resulting Battle of the Pyramids. They pushed on and two days later they prepared to take Cairo, but before they could, the Beys abandoned the city and their officials offered to hand it over to Bonaparte peacefully, with Ibrahim and Murad Bey fleeing to Syria and Upper Egypt subsequently. Bonaparte gave chase to Ibrahim, caught and beat him at Salahie and forced him out of Egypt, while his depty, Desaix, pursued Murad into Upper Egypt.
Meanwhile, the British Forces attempting to prevent Bonaparte’s occupation of Egypt had found the French Warships in a defensive position in the Bay of Abukir and through the genius of fleet commander Horatio Nelson, the British were able to destroy or capture 11 out of the 13 French line ships and half of the French frigates, forcing the remaining four ships to flee and put the Mediterranean Sea under British control. Bonaparte, however, did not let the news of the loss of his only naval forces discomfort him; instead, he became even more hell-bent on controlling the Egyptian mainland than before. He once again set about using Islam and the Quran as a means to gain political presence and power in the country, encouraging the peoples to unite together with him against the Mamluk ‘oppression’. He gained a massive amount of support through his efforts, striving to protect pilgrims to Mecca and organizing celebrations for the Prophet’s Birthday. These efforts saw the Islamic side of the Egyptian government grant him the title ‘Ali-Bonaparte’ but he was never fully able to convince the Egyptian populace of his sincerity as he repeatedly imposed taxes on them to help support his military goals, this saw a string of attacks and assassinations against his forces. Bonaparte remained undeterred as he practiced further extravagant celebrations in Cairo, eventually converting it to resemble a European city whilst setting up a library, a health service, an observatory, a menagerie, a chemistry laboratory, a botanical garden and an antiquities museum, as well as having scholars write up a French-Arabic dictionary, a table of comparative French and Egyptian weights and measures as well as several journals and a European, Egyptian and Coptic Calendar.
But this was simply not enough to convince the Egyptian populace of Bonaparte’s sincerity and later on that year, the public formed a mob and began to exterminate any Frenchmen they came across. At the same time, Murad Bey had organized guerrilla attacks from the deserts and the French were trapped in the centre of the attacks. Bonaparte, however, was not deterred and beat the guerrilla forces back into the desert from whence they came before turning his artillery into the city. He roamed the streets with a small group, hunting down any rebels he could and executing him personally, cornering them in the Great Mosque. At the same time, the sky erupted into a violent thunderstorm, a rare sight in Egypt, and as the rebels begged for mercy in the Great Mosque, Bonaparte replied to them:
“God is too late, what you’ve begun I will now finish.”
Then, Bonaparte had his artillery open fire on the Mosque before having his soldiers break down the gates, storm inside and massacre the remaining rebels, leaving none alive. In the aftermath of the rebel attack, the instigators of the plot, several wealthy Sheikhs, Turks and Egyptians, were rounded up and executed before the city was hit with a high tax and had its religious council, the Divan, replied by Bonaparte’s Military Commission. From this point on, the revolts against Bonaparte ceased. Meanwhile, the Ottomans had heard of the French losing their fleet in Aboukir and believed that they could easily defeat the French army now that they were trapped on land by the British forces. So they assembled an army of 12,000 Turks, 10,000 Syrians and Iraqis and 8,000 Israelis to march under Jezzar Pasha through the desert as well as another army under Mustafa Pasha consisting of 8,000 Turks and 42,000 Albanians, Asians and Greeks to land from the sea in Aboukir.
The French quickly learned of the Ottoman military forces and produced a counteroffensive as Bonaparte prepared to attack first army moving through Syria by taking 13,000 French troops and capturing the castle in Arish before moving onto Jaffa through Gaza and laying siege to the castle-city before taking it just a few days later. They moved on to Acre, capturing Haifa, Nazareth and Tyre along the way, before besieging Acre itself. However, despite numerous victories in small skirmishes, the French were forced to retreat when Sidney Smith, British fleet commander, landed with his crew nearby and prepared to assault, as well as when Phelippeaux, Boneparte’s classmate in the Ecole Militaire, joined the Ottoman forces as their lead strategist. As the French retreated, they murdered their prisoners as well as their own soldiers stricken with plague while they stripped the land dry of livestock, crops and provisions, killing every person and destroying every building they came across as they moved across Syria back into Egypt.
Upon arriving back in Cairo, Napoleon Bonaparte learned that Murad Bay had overcome Desaix and was planning to attack Upper Egypt. Bonaparte immediately marched out to meet him in Giza where he promptly destroyed the military force there and headed straight to Alexandria, which had also been threatened by Ottoman ships arriving in Aboukir. Despite Mustapha in Aboukir having an army 18,000 strong, he was completely decimated by Bonaparte, captured and marched through the streets of Cairo with his son and senior officers. The citizens of Cairo now believed Bonaparte to be a prophet-warrior due to predicting his own victory, however, Bonaparte had lost motivation for conquest in Egypt and his military forces were rapidly weakening due to their numerous battles and disease, and so he returned to France in 1799 to assist with the political situation there and his most senior officers, Kleber and Menou, were left to control Egypt. However, less than a year later, after suppressing numerous uprisings and insurrections, Kleber was assassinated by Suleiman of Aleppo, a scholar, and Menou was defeated by the British forces and repatriated back to France. The Treaty of Paris in 1802 handed the country back over to the Ottoman Empire in return for peace between France and the Ottomans.
However, soon after the French were forced to evacuate Egypt and Britain reconciled relations between them and the Ottomans, the Ottoman Empire began a mass genocide of the Mamluks. The British didn’t take kindly to this and immediately attacked the Ottoman forces, forcing them to release the Mamluk prisoners to the British Forces. In the end however, Husrev Pasha became the first Ottoman governor of Egypt in 1802 following the expulsion of the French and Muhammad Ali Pasha took power a year later, however, Muhammad Ali was only recognized by the Ottoman Sultan as ruler of Egypt in 1805 after the Turks defeated the Mamluks and the Albanians in the civil war, taking full control of Egypt in its entirety from that moment onwards. He straight away sent his sixteen-year-old son, Tusun, with an army of over 20,000 men, into Saudi Arabia. Tusun rapidly captured Medina, Jeddah and Mecca in 1811 as well as capturing their general. After Saudi Sultan Saud passed away in 1814, Muhammad Ali reconciled with Saud’s son, Abdullah I and concluded a treaty with him in 1815. However, the treaty was broken repeatedly by the Saudis and after the passing of Tusun in 1816, Muhammad Ali sent his eldest son, Ibrahim Pasha, to capture Diriyah in Saudi Arabia in 1818.
Muhammad Ali also began to reform the country greatly in nearly every area as he seized more and more land until he owned all of the soil in Egypt. However, using the revenue generated he was able to build academic institutions and promote education as well as the study of medicine. Through Ali’s efforts, he was able to strengthen the Egyptian economy greatly and give rise to the cultivation of cotton in the Delta as well as bring the port of Alexandria back to prominence.
In 1820, he moved to take eastern Libya and Sudan, and sent his son to capture parts of Somalia and the Yemen. By 1839, Muhammad Ali had completely defeated the Ottomans and taken Syria as well and he began to advance towards Anatolia and the rest of the Middle East. The European powers rapidly realized just how powerful a man he had become and prompted Muhammad Ali to sign the Convention of London, allowing him and his descendants full sovereignty over Egypt and his other territories, provided they stayed territories of the Ottoman Empire. However, he declined, asking for the French to support him, which at first they did, but quickly switched sides upon seeing the other European superpowers ally against Muhammad Ali. His forces were destroyed subsequently later on that year and he signed the treaty in 1841, relinquishing control of Syria and Crete in the process as well as downsizing his navy and army considerably. He focused his efforts on internal matters and helped Egypt survive through a plague of locusts, a Nile flood and widespread disease among cattle, as well as reforming the financial system greatly.
As he aged, he passed his position on to his son, Ibrahim, but he in turn died in 1848, later on the same year. His nephew, Abbas I, took over, but in less than six years he was murdered by two of his slaves and his uncle, the favourite son of Muhammad Ali, Said Pasha, took over. He gave in to many of the French demands imposed on him and died in 1863, being succeeded by Ismail, son of Ibrahim Pasha. Although Ismail attempted to perform large-scale reforms, they failed largely due to funding through his want for personal extravagance, for instance; Ismail agreed to double the tribute paid to the Ottoman Empire in order to end Egypt as an Ottoman province and allow it to exist as a Khedivate, with him as Khedive, similar to a Kingdom and a King. He repeatedly borrowed money and took loans out until he could not do it anymore, in the end; he began selling his shares of the Suez Canal to the British Government for less than four million pounds in 1875. In order for the country’s credit rating to be improved, the British Government decided to intervene with the help of the French and seized control of Egypt’s government. However, many Egyptians could not accept the occupation of Egypt by British and French forces and revolted under Colonel Ahmed Urabi. The British and French governments meanwhile pressured the Ottoman Sultan to remove Ismail Pasha until it was done in 1879 and make his son, Tewfik Pasha, Khedive. Tewfik was put under pressure from more revolts and despite European support from British and French war ships, he was forced to flee to Alexandria for fear of his own safety. After a short while, the nationalists controlled the country but this ceased when the British forces decimated the Egyptian army and put Tewfik back in control, remaining under British military occupation for the remainder of the century.
20th Century History
In 1914, Britain made Egypt an official protectorate state and changed the head of state to the Sultan when Khedive Abbas II was deposed and replaced with his uncle, Sultan Hessein Kamel. This was largely in effort by the British in an attempt to garner more support from the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. However, by the end of the war, the Egyptian Nationalist Movement under the Wafd Party had gained widespread support by the Egyptian populace and its head, Saad Zaghlul, began to lead the direction of the country’s government.
Seeing the danger in this, the British exiled him and his party members to Malta in 1919 but the country exploded into revolution as a result and forced the now-UK Government to declare Egypt’s independence in 1922. Two years later in 1924, Saad Zaghlul returned to the country and became elected by popular vote as Prime Minister of Egypt, while a constitution was also written up at the same time.
By 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded, mainly to stop the Egyptian government from being dragged into the Second Italo-Abyssinian War by the Italian forces, but the treaty fell on its face when Egyptian Nationalist Parties such as the Arab Socialist Party demanded full independence, free of any control from the United Kingdom.
For the next twenty years, tensions rose as it became apparent that the UK still had a firm grip on the Egyptian Government, and, in 1952, this finally erupted as the Egyptian Monarchy was overthrown in a military coup d’état for its excessive involvement in Egyptian politics. Eventually the UK pulled their forces out in 1956. At the same time, Gamal Abdel Nasser, the lead instigator of the 1952 revolution, took power as President later on in the same month. In 1958, Egypt and Syria formed the short-lived sovereign union, the United Arab Republic, but this split once more back into Egypt and Syria when Syria seceded in 1961.
At the start of the 1960s, Egypt stepped into the North Yemen Civil war and offered the Yemeni republicans over seventy thousand Egyptian troops, ammunition and even chemical weapons. Egyptian commitment had to fall back in 1967 when Israel occupied Sinai in Egypt and the Egyptian government had to withdraw some of their forces to repel the Israeli forces. At the same time, Egypt had begun building a relationship with the Soviet Union.
After the passing of Nasser in 1970, he was succeeded by Anwar Sadat who quickly switched the country’s Cold War allegiance to the United States, expelling the Soviet Ambassadors in 1972. A year later, Egypt and Syria launched a joint attack on the Israeli forces and drove them out of Sinai. In 1975, Sadat changed his predecessor’s prior economic policies, reducing taxes and import tariffs to encourage investments in the country. However, due to the abandonment of investment in Egypt’s smaller companies and industries and subsidies on basic foodstuffs were eliminated, the 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots broke out and saw around eighty deaths. In 1977, Sadat visited Israel and negotiated a peace treaty in 1979 with the government there. However, this was seen as controversial and saw Egypt being expelled from the Arab League, despite taking support from most of the Egyptian populace.
In 1981, Sadat was speaking on a podium at the annual victory parade in Cairo, when suddenly Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli, secretly a Jihadist cell leader, leapt out of the line of soldiers, threw grenades into the stage, approached it quickly and unloaded his assault rifle into Sadat, killing him as well as the Cuban Ambassador, a Coptic Orthodox Bishop, an Omani General and the head of Egypt’s Central Auditing Agency, Samir Helmy. Following his assassination, Sadat was replaced by Vice President Hosni Mubarak who quickly ascended to President. Mubarak was able to quickly strengthen the bonds between Egypt and Israel but also take the pressure off the relationship between Egypt and its Arabic neighbours. However, internally the country struggled as the economy was unable to keep up with the output of various industries and agriculture. At the same time, terrorist attacks became increasingly frequent and more violent, typically targeting government officials, foreign travellers and Christian sects.
These attacks continued well on into the 90s and in 1997, the most brutally violent attack took place when six gunmen of the extremist group Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya massacred 62 people, mainly tourists, in the Deir el-Bahri archaeological site. Additionally, through various laws passed by Muburak’s National Democratic Party, he had assumed complete domination of the Egyptian government by the end of the 90s.
21st Century History
In 2005, Mubarak announced the first presidential election with many of his own laws being reformed. However, new laws placed on all candidates allowed Mubarak to easily win and saw only 25% of the population vote. Additionally, many election observers have claimed that the government interfered in the elections and following the election, the runner up, Ayman Nour, was imprisoned by Mubarak.
The following year in 2006, Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International both released reports that Egypt was a centre for routine torture, unjustified imprisonment and unjustified trials before military courts. Egypt’s foreign ministry has since denied these allegations.
More new laws enforced by Muburak in 2007 prohibited the forming of political parties or the engagement of political activities under influence of religious beliefs or practices. In part to help prevent terrorism inspired by religious extremism but also to give the police and military more power to keep surveillance on any individuals of their choosing and make arrests with less justification.
In 2011, the country erupted into revolution and Muburak was overthrown and forced to flee from Cairo. When Vice President Omar Suleiman announced Mubarak’s official resignation, the country broke out into celebration. While the seat of President remained unused, the military assumed fully power over the country, dissolving parliament and suspending the constitution. A parliamentary election, the first of its kind since the previous regime had been in power, was held later on that year, with no reports of irregularities or violence.
The following year in lieu of results of the election, Mohamed Morsi was elected President and Hisham Qandil was elected Prime Minister. Due to the inclusion of four members of the Muslim Brotherhood in Qandil’s 35 member cabinet, most Liberal and Secular groups walked out of the assembly and the government lost support. Later on in 2012, Morsi issued a law making his decrees unchallengable. This saw large-scale protests and violence across Egypt, seeing battles between Mori supporters and opponents kicking off towards the end of the year.
The protests continued through to 2013 and in the end, Morsi was deposed in a coup d’état by the Military and the country saw an interim government installed. Later on the same year, the Egyptian Judge Adly Mansour was sworn in as acting president alongside the interim government.
At the start of 2014, a new constitution was institutionalized, being supported by 98.1% of 38.6% of voter turnout.
Ma a salama
Mah ah sah-lah-mah
Hal tatakallamo alloghah al Enjileziah / Alarabiah?
Hahl tah-tah-kah-lah-moh ahl-oh-gah ahl Ehn-jill-ehz-ee-ah / Ah-lah-rah-bee-ah
Do you speak English / Arabic?
My name is…
Hal beemkanek mosa’adati
Hahl beam-kah-nehk moh-sah-ah-dah-tee
Can you help me?
I’m looking for…
Na’am / Laa
Nah-ahm / Lah
Yes / No
Assayed / Assayedah / Al Anesah
Ah-say-ehd / Ah-say-ehd-ah / Ahl Ah-ney-sah
Mr / Mrs / Miss
Alyawm / Al aan
Ahl-yorm / Ahl Ahn
Today / Now
Ghadan / Albareha
Gah-dahn / Ahl-bah-reh-ah
Tomorrow / Yesterday
Haza / Zalek / Huna / Hunak
Hah-zah / Zah-lek / Hoo-nah / Hoo-nahk
This / That / Here / There
Above are a few common Arabic phrases to help you get around.
The national language of Egypt is Modern Standard Arabic, of which, 68% of all speakers speak Egyptian Arabic, 29% speak Sa’idi Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic is spoken by about 1.6%, Sudanese Arabic is spoken by about 0.6%, Domari and Noblin are spoken by about 0.6% and the last 0.2% are spoken as Beja, Siwi and several others.
However, Greek, Armenian, Italian, French, German and English are all spoken widely by immigrants and foreign expatriates.
Clothing, Dress Style & Etiquette
Egypt’s state religion is Islam, of which 90% of the population follows, and of these, Sunni is the main branch but Mu’tazila, Shia Twelvers and Ismailism are prominent as well. Sufi orders are also not uncommon. Christianity is also very frequent throughout the country with about 9% being Coptic Christians, including Coptic Catholics, Coptic Evangelical and Coptic Protestant denominations, and 1% of Christians are non-Coptic. Judaism is also common in the country.
It’s important to note that Baha’ism also exists in the country but often face persecution alongside other smaller faiths, these religions are not recognized by the government, as is the case with atheism and only recently saw changes to allow members of unrecognized faiths to obtain ID from the government whilst leaving the religion field blank.
Museums, Galleries & Architecture
Due to having one of the oldest civilizations in the world, Egypt’s architecture varies greatly and structures as old as five thousand years old to ones as young and recent as constructed in the 21st Century are visible. There are over 60 museums though out the country, the biggest of the three which are the 6th of October Panorama, the Egyptian National Military Museum and the Egyptian Museum, the last of which contains over 120,000 items from Egypt’s history and cultural identity.
Today Egypt is an Islamic country and as such it’s common to see clothing inspired by the other Arabic nations nearby worn most frequently, this includes the Kefiyeh (a cloth wrapped around the head) and the Thawb (a type of long robe) worn by men, and the Hijab (a cloth wrapped around the head and upper body) and the Abaya (a long body covering) worn by women. Western clothing is also very common today.
Historically however, the clothing was very different. In Ancient Egypt, Men would wear the Shendyt (a kilt or skirt like garment) whilst Women would wear simple long dresses called the Kalasiris. Cosmetics, Wigs and Jewellery were common, especially among nobility, and Sandals were worn depending on the situation. Additionally, the nobility would wear a Khat (a head covering worn over the crown and hung down the back of the head).
Literature, Poetry, Music & Dance
The Ancient Egyptian culture is believed to be the first civilization to have developed literature which was most frequently either written onto Papyrus and rolled into scrolls or were long in-depth stories inscribed on monuments and tombs. As Islam moved into the country, Egypt saw a dynamic shift in its style of writing through the 7th
to the 18th
Century, then as European presence became more known, the country underwent another dynamic shift of culture. Today, Egypt’s novelists and authors have expanded greatly and include legendary writers such as Muhammad Husayn Haykal (Zaynab), Naguib Mahfouz (The Cairo Trilogy), Nawal El Saadawi (Memoirs in a Women’s Prison).
Egypt’s music scene sees an intense mix of influences, including those of indigenous sources but also with influences coming from the West, Africa and Mediterranean. Popular artists today include Mahmud Osman, Almaz, Abdu-I Hamuli, Sayed Darwish, Mohammed Abdel Wahab, Umm Kulthum and Abdel Halim Hafez with contemporary artists including the likes of Mohamed Mounir and Amr Diab.
Dance is one of Egypt’s fortes and sees Belly Dance as its own original creation. The dance is split into two genres of Belly Dance; Raqs Sharqi, which takes on more of an oriental appearance, and Raqs Baladi, which is more of an indigenous native variety. Additionally, Shaabi is a popular dance performed on the street which is similar to the latter Belly Dance style. Famous dancers in Egypt include the likes of Samia Gamal.
Calendar & Events
On top of standard Islamic festivals practiced in the Gulf region, Egypt includes festivals, typically based on various Saints of the Coptic and Sufi denominations, called Mulid, as well as the ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim held in April or May, following Easter Sunday. Ramadan is also especially celebrated in Egypt but sees the unique practice of sounds and lights incorporated into the celebrations.
One of the most prominent and dominant nightclubs in the country, the After Eight in Cairo produces live music for seven nights a week from the likes of Dina, Sahra, Reggae Bus and the Wust El Balad Band. Space is limited and its couples only so make sure to make a reservation! The nightclub also functions as a fully-functional restaurant.
Active and bouncing, the Tamarai in Cairo is one of Egypt’s biggest nightclubs and is widely thought of as one of the city’s penultimate after-dark locations. The club embraces a modern yet relaxed feel designed by internationally renowned architect Shahira H. Fahmy and brings both liveliness and comfort into the mix to allow all of the club’s guests to feel welcome.
Moving into Sharm El Sheikh, the Crystal LIVE Lounge brings a stylish and sophisticated aura about through the use of some of the international stage’s top vocalists, musicians and performers. The club also offers a range of VIP services such as a first-class waiter service, happy hour and champagne cocktails to allow those willing to let go of a little cash to enjoy a wonderful night out.
For those looking to revisit their native homeland of England or for those wishing to experience the British atmosphere, The Half Crown in Sharm El Sheikh brings forth a brilliant English pub style with typical drinks served in a venue in the United Kingdom. The pub is ideal for the homesick, the lovesick and those looking for a good night out with friends alike.
Luxor also offers many delights perfect for those whom are a little homesick such as Murphy’s Irish Pub, an authentic Irish Pub with authentic Irish (and European) drinks, allowing those wishing for a nice social night out to experience a comfortable nightlife, and for those just wanting a good hot meal, the pub is perfect for that too, serving reasonably priced good-quality food all night long.
Want to feel like a king? The Golden Palace Bar in Luxor is designed to make you feel like just that! The whole bar has been decked out with beautiful golden-coloured furniture, lighting and upholstery, giving a feel of pure royalty, luxury and extravagantly elegant ambience. The bar serves tasty drinks sourced from all over the world.
Perhaps you need a livelier venue but you’re not quite feeling like getting all hot and bothered in a sweaty club somewhere? How about the Cacao Bar in Dahar? The Cacao Bar has been designed with a significant Italian motif and serves all sorts of delicious food from Pizza to Lasagne, allowing you to chill out, enjoy a meal and watch the footy. Hey, maybe even enjoy that free Wi-Fi they provide too?
Featuring a slightly more Hawaiian feel, the Mojito Club & Sports Bar in Dahab has been said to produce some of the tastiest drinks in the country whilst giving off a sort of beach-side atmosphere. The roof bar is particularly good in the evenings for a quick drink and dancing is available for anyone looking to get their feet wet!
Skat, Funk, Jazz. You love it, the Crooners Club provides it! Some of the top Jazz from all over the country alongside Soul and Nu Jazz bands perform regularly in this venue, fitted with air-conditioning, delectable drinks and the cosiest seating, allowing you to easily kick back, relax and let yourself be one with the music.
The currency used in Egypt is the Egyptian Pound which is divided into 100 Egyptian Piastres and uses the international currency code EGP. 1 EGP is equal to about $0.14 or £0.09.
Coins come in varieties in 5, 10, 20, 25 and 50 Piastre amounts as well as in a 1 Egyptian Pound coin.
Bank notes are available in 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 Egyptian Pound amounts.
Egypt’s economy is primarily based in Textile, Food processing, Tourism, Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Hydrocarbon, Construction, Cement, Metal and Light Manufacturing industries but also sees Crude Oil and Petroleum exported greatly, producing another additional source of revenue. However, it’s important to note that Food processing has, due to increased desertification of agricultural areas, declined significantly and continues to decline.
Egypt’s banking system works remarkably similarly to that of the western world and incorporates Current Accounts which produce less interest but more flexibility with withdrawal amounts and Savings Accounts which restrict the frequency of the user’s withdrawals but in turn provide higher interest rates. It’s important to note that the interest rates for Savings Accounts in Egypt can be two or three times the rates provided by their counterparts in the west.
Tax in Egypt only includes Income Tax and Social Security Tax.
Income Tax is imposed on Egyptian Residents earning money from the Egyptian Government or an Egyptian Public or Private Organization or Company. An Egyptian Resident is considered to be anyone who has resided in Egypt for over 183 days (roughly six months) in a calendar year. The earned money may include an employment income, business and/or non-commercial profits, profit from immovable properties. This starts when EGP 5000 and above is being earned each month ($720 or £430, tax is applied at a rate of 10%. At EGP 20,000 ($2900 or £1700) this jumps to 15%, and again at EGP 40,000 ($5700 or £3400) to 20% before reaching the top rate of 25% at EGP 10,000,000 ($1,400,000 or £850,000).
Social Security tax is imposed at a rate of 14% up to EGP 912.50 ($130 or £78) and all amounts exceeding this are taxed at 11% instead up until EGP 1200 ($170 or £100).
Due to the high quantity of the crops produced in the country’s Nile Valley and Delta, Egyptian Cuisine frequently makes use of vegetables, especially legumes, and may see additions of bread, alcohol and seafood on the side. It’s been quoted as especially good for vegetarians due to the high reliance on vegetable dishes.
Common dishes may include Eish Masri (a type of flatbread made from fenugreek seeds and maize flour), Keshk (a yoghurt pudding often seasoned with fried onions and chicken), Mahshi (rice stuffing seasoned with herbs and spices and stuffed into various vegetables and occasionally meat such as pigeon), Samak Mashwi (grilled fish) and Calamari (fried or grilled squid with tartar sauce).
Deserts are popular too and typically resemble other Eastern Mediterranean desserts such as Malban (Turkish delight), Luqmat al-Qadi (small crunchy doughnuts filled with syrup) and Eid ul-Fitr (shortbread covered with icing sugar and stuffed with dates, walnuts and/or Turkish delight). Tea is also very popular in Egypt, as is Coffee, but is typically served black and sweet, but can be served with milk as well.
Citizens from any of the following countries may stay in Egypt for up to 3 months without a visa:
United Arab Emirates
Additionally, provided the following conditions are met, citizens of the following countries may also stay for up to three months:
Afghanistan: Must be either above 50 or below 17 years of age.
Algeria: Must be below 15 years of age.
Libya: Only residents of the Butnan District.
Jordan: Must not hold a 5-year passport with a stamp from the Jordanian Registration Office on the reverse side cover.
Lebanon: Must be either above 50 or below 17 years of age.
Libya: Only female citizens.
Morocco: Must be below the age of 15.
Sudan: Must be above 50 years of age, below 17 years of age or be a female citizen.
Tunisia: Must be below the age of 15.
Citizens of the following countries may obtain a visa upon arrival:
All European Union Countries
All other countries require a full visa to be able to stay in the country for over 30 days and citizens of the following countries will also need approval from Egyptian State Security Authorities before being able to hold the country as well:
Although Egypt is often stereotyped as lacking medical ability, in recent decades this situation has improved drastically with over forty schools in medical knowledge and practice opening across the country. Additionally, Egypt is known to be one of the lowest-prevalence HIV/AIDS countries with less than 1% of the population being HIV-Positive.
However, it should be noted that due to a now-discontinued mass treatment campaign for Schistosomiasis using improperly sterilized glass syringes, Egypt has particularly high rates of Hepatitis C (around 22%) making it one of the highest worldwide. Additionally, recreational drug use and abuse is growing rapidly more frequent in the country with use of drugs by those over 15 increasing drastically from 5% to over a third.
Egypt’s transportation infrastructure has drastically improved in the last decade, and now sees over 21 thousand miles of roads stretching across the country from the Nile Valley and Delta to the Mediterranean and Red Sea coastlines, as well as in Sinai and the Western Oasis. Recent developments have also seen roads being better linked to the Arab Peninsula and the African Continent.
Waterways are incredibly impressive in the country with over 3500 kilometres of waterways stretching across the Nile River, Lake Nasser and the Alexandria-Cairo Waterway as well as the Suez Canal. Water-borne transport also includes a range of ports and harbours with four being located on the Mediterranean coastline, ten being located on the Red Sea coastline and a couple located along the Nile River itself. The ports harbour over 180 large ships with 63 of these being Cargo Ships, 57 being Passenger Ships, 25 being Bulk Carriers, 16 being Roll-On or Roll-Off Ships, 14 being Petroleum Tankers, 3 being Short-Sea Passenger Vessels, and two being a Container Ship and a Liquefied Gas Carrier respectively.
Airways are also incredibly prevalent within the country and Egypt has over 90 airports in the country with at least 72 with paved runways. Three of these airports also feature Heliports and these services combined are used by over four-and-a-half million passengers a year.
Embassies in Egypt include:
Afghani Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Afghanistan in Cairo, Egypt
59 El-Orouba Street, Heliopolis
Phone: (+20-2) 417 7236
Fax: (+20-2) 417 7238
Office Hours: Sunday to Thursday 9:00am - 2:00pm
Details: Ambassador: Mr. Hafizullah AYUBI
AlbaniaAlbanian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Albania in Cairo, Egypt
27, El-Gezera Al-Wossta, Gound Floor, nr. 4, Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: +202 736 1815
Fax: +202 735 6966
AlgeriaAlgerian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Algeria in Cairo, Egypt
14 Boulevard Bresil, Ezamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: +20 2 2736 8527 / 1520/ +20 2 2738 0363
Fax: +20 2 2738 0363
AngolaAngolan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Angola in Cairo, Egypt
12, Fouad Mohey El Din, Square Mohandessine, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 3 3377602
(+20) 3 7498259
Fax: (+20) 3 3378683
ArgentinaArgentinian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Argentina in Cairo, Egypt
8 El Saleh Ayoub, 1st floor, Apto. 16, Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 2 735-1501
(20) 2 - 2735-8652
(20) 2 - 2735-5234
Fax: (+20) 2 736-4355
ArmeniaArmenian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Republic of Armenia in the Arab Republic of Egypt
20 Mohamed Mazhar St.,, Zamalek, Egypt
Phone: (+202) 2737 41 57, 2737 41 59
Fax: (+202) 2737 41 58
Office Hours: Sunday trough Thursday From 9 AM till 3 PM
AustraliaAustralian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Australian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
World Trade Centre (11th Floor), 1191 Corniche El-Nil, Boulak (Code No. 11111), Cairo, Egypt
Phone: +20 2 2770 6600
Fax: +20 2 2770 6650
Office Hours: The Embassy will be open from 8am to 4.15 pm Sunday to Wednesdays and from 8am to 1:30pm on Thursdays. The Embassy will be closed on public holidays.
AustriaAustrian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Austria in Cairo, Egypt
El Nile Street/Corner 5, Wissa Wassef Street, 5th Floor, Riyadth-Tower, Giza, 11111 Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) (2) 3570 29 75
Fax: (+20) (2) 3570 29 79
AustriaAustrian Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Consulate of Austria in Alexandria, Egypt
8 Rue Eglise Debbane, Alexandria, Egypt
Phone: (+20) (3) 480 88 88
Fax: (+20) (3) 483 91 90
Office Hours: 10.30-14.00
AzerbaijanAzerbaijani Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the Arab Republic of Egypt
Maadi Sarayat , street 10, Villa 16/24, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: +202 23583761, +202 23583783 (ext. 115)
Fax: +202 23583725
BahrainBahraini Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Bahraini Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
15 El Brazil Street, Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 2 27366 605 / (+20) 2 27357 996
Fax: (+20) 2 27366 609
Office Hours: 09:00 am - 15:00 pm
BangladeshBangladeshi Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Bangladeshi Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
18 Hayeet El Tadrees Street, P. O. Box 12311, Giza, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 2 3748 1796 / 58
Fax: (+20) 2 3748 1782
Office Hours: Sun-Thu: 09.00 - 16.00
BangladeshBangladeshi Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Bangladeshi Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
220, El Houryia Street, Alexandria, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 3 5970294
Fax: (+20) 3 5968805
BelarusBelarusian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Republic of Belarus to the Arab Republic of Egypt
26, Gaber Ebn Hayan str., Dokki-Giza, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: +2 02 3338 95 45, 3749 91 71
Fax: +2 02 3338 95 45
Office Hours: Sun-Thu 8.00-16.20
BelgiumBelgian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Belgium in Cairo
20, Kamel El Shennawi Street, Garden City, 11511 Cairo
Phone: + (20) (2) 279 47 494
+ (20) (2) 279 47 495
Fax: + (20) (2) 279 43 147
Office Hours: Sunday through Thursday 8 30 AM to 3 30 PM Legalisations
Sunday, Monday and Wednesday from 11 AM to 12 AM
BelgiumBelgian Consulate in Alexandrie, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of Belgium in Alexandrie, Egypt
32, Lumumba Street, Bab Sharki, 21131 Alexandrie. P.O. Box 152
, P.O. Box 152Alexandria - Egypt
Phone: + (20) (3) 495.00.00
Fax: + (20) (2) 495.80.00
BelgiumBelgian Consulate in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of Belgium in Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt
Sultana Building, Naama Bay, Sharm el Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt
City: Sharm el Sheikh
Phone: + (20) (69) 3600.145
Fax: + (20) (69) 3600.144
BoliviaBolivian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Bolivia in Cairo, Egypt
No 5 Dar El Shefa St. 2nd. Floor, Apt. 21 P.P. Box 182, Apt. 21 P.P. Box 182, Dawawin Garden City
Phone: (20)(2) 355-0917
Fax: 354-8643 or 354-3422
BoliviaBolivian Consulate in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Bosnia- Herzegovina in Egypt
42 Al Sawra, Al Dokki
Phone: (202) 749 9191~2
Fax: (202) 749 9190
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Bosnia- Herzegovina in Arab Republic of Egypt
42 El Thawra, St. El Dokki,, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: + (202) 374 99 191
Fax: + (202) 374 99 190
BrazilBrazilian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Brazil in Egypt
1125 Corniche El Nil Street, Maspero - Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (202) 2575-6938/2576-1466/2577-3013 (Geral)
BruneiBruneian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Brunei Darussalam in Egypt
24, Hassan Assem Street, Zamalek, Kaherah, P. O. Box 499, Gazeira , Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 2 738 0097
Fax: (+20) 2 736 6375 / 736 6368
Office Hours: Sunday to Thursday 0830 to 1430
BulgariaBulgarian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Bulgarian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
6 El Malek El Afdal Street, Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: 0020 2 27-363-025
Fax: 0020 2 27-363-826
BurundiBurundian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Burundi in Cairo, Egypt
27 El Ryad Street Mohandessin , Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 2 302 4301 / 2
Fax: (+20) 2 344 1997 / 353 1218
CameroonCameroonian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Cameroon in Egypt
15 Mohamed Sedky Souleiman Street, Mohandessin, POB 2061, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 2 344 1101 / 14
Fax: (+20) 2 345 9208; (+20) 2 303 3714
CanadaCanadian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Canada in Cairo, Egypt
26 Kamel El Shenawy St., Garden City, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (011 20 2) 2791-8700
Fax: (011 20 2) 2791-8860
Central African RepublicCentral African Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Central African Republic in Cairo, Egypt
49 Gezirat El-Arab, Mohandessin, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 2 344 5942
Fax: (+20) 2 344 5942
ChadChadian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Chad in Cairo, Egypt
12, Midan El Refai, Dokki, POB 1869, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 2 337 3379
(+20) 2 349 4461
Fax: (+20) 2 337 3232
ChileChilean Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Chile in Cairo, Egypt
Es Asmak Building, , 1 Saleh Ayoub Street, , P.7.Apt.74, Zamalek, El Cairo.
Phone: 20(2) 735 8711
20(2) 735 8446
20(2) 738 1851
Fax: 20(2) 735 3716
ChileChilean Consulate in Alejandria, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of Chile in Alejandria, Egypt
2 Lumumba Street Alejandria 21131
ChileChilean Consulate in Port Said, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of Chile in Port Said
8,Palestinian Street, , Massagrie Building Port Sais
City: Port Said
ChinaChinese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Chinese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
14, Baghat Aly Street, Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
ChinaChinese Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Chinese Consulate General in Alexandria, Egypt
6 Badawi St., Rassaffa Moharam Bey, Alexandria, Egypt
ColombiaColombian Consulate in El Cairo, Egypt
Consulate of Colombia in El Cairo, Egypt
6 Guezira Street,Zamalek, Garden City
City: El Cairo
Phone: 20 - 2 - 3423711
Fax: 20 - 2 - 3497429
ColombiaColombian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Colombia in Cairo, Egypt
6, Guezira Street, Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: 20 2 7364203
20 2 7373711
Fax: 20 2 7357429
CroatiaCroatian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Republic of Croatia in Cairo, Egypt
3, Abou El Feda St., Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: 00202 273 83 155
00202 273 55 815
Fax: 00202 273 55 812
Office Hours: Sunday-Thursday 9:00-17:00
CroatiaCroatian Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Consulat of the Republic of Croatia in Alexandria, Egypt
32, Patrice Lomomba St. El Shalalat, Alexandria, Egypt
Phone: 002 03 459 5167
Fax: 002 03 459 5157
CubaCuban Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Cuba in Cairo, Egypt
Número 14, Calle 202, Deglaa, Maadi, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (20) 252-13161
Fax: (20) 252-13324
Office Hours: Sunday, Monday, Wednesday, Thursday from 09:30 am. to 01:00 pm Closed on holidays in Cuba and holidays in Egypt
Details: Ambassador: Excellency Otto Vaillant Frías
CyprusCypriot Embassy in Mohandessin, Egypt
Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus in Mohandessin, Egypt
17 El Amir Omar Tousson St., Mohandessin, Arab Republic of Egypt
Phone: + 20 2 33455967, 33455968, 33455494
Fax: + 20 2 33455969
Office Hours: 08:00 - 15:30 (Sun. - Thur.)
Czech RepublicCzech Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Czech Republic in Cairo, Egypt
4, Dokki Street, 12511 Giza, Cairo
Office Hours: Sunday - Thursday: 08:30 - 15:00
Czech RepublicCzech Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of the Czech Republic in Alexandria, Egypt
Zahran Group, 14th May Road, Semouha, Alexandria, Egypt
DenmarkDanish Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Royal Danish Embassy in Egypt
12, Hassan Sabri Street, 11211 Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20 2) 2739 6500
Fax: (+20 2) 2739 6588
DenmarkDanish Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Royal Danish Consulate General in Egypt
20 Patrice Lumumba Street, Bab Sharki, P.O. Box 622-21131, Alexandria, Egypt
Phone: +20 (3) 390 6000
Fax: +20 (3) 489 0121
DjiboutiDjibouti Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Republic of Djibouti in Egypt
15 Rue Dr Mohamed Abdou As-sa?d ex Hay-at Ad-Tadr?s, Al Dokki
Phone: (+20-2) 3366434, 3366435, 3366436
Fax: (+20-2) 3366437
DjiboutiDjibouti Embassy in Asmara, Egypt
Embassy of the Republic of Djibouti in Eritrea
38 Zeri Yacob Street
Phone: (+291-1) 125990, 125979
Fax: (+291-1) 126213
Dominican RepublicDominican Embassy in EL CAIRO, Egypt
Embassy of the Dominican Republic in Egypt
40 A, Mohamed Mazhar Street, 8th Floor, , Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt 11211
City: EL CAIRO
EcuadorEcuadorian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Ecuador in Egypt
33, Ismail Mohamed St., Piso 2nd. Floor, Zamalek
Phone: (002) 02 27372776; (002) 02 2736 7355; (002) 02 2736 1839
Fax: (002) 02 2736 1841
Office Hours: 9am - 5pm Monday - Thursday
EritreaEritrean Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the State of Eritrea in Egypt
PO Box 2624, 6 El-Fallah St., Al Mohandesin
EstoniaEstonian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Estonia in Egypt
8th Floor, Abou El Feda Building, 3, Abou El Feda St, Zamalek, Cairo 11211
Phone: (20) 227 384 190
Fax: (20) 227 384 189
EthiopiaEthiopian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Ethiopia in Egypt
Mesaha Square, Villa 11, Dokki-Cairo-Egypt
Phone: (00202) 3353693-3353696
Fax: (00202)- 3353699
Office Hours: Sunday - Thursday: 8:30 am to 4:00 pm
FinlandFinnish Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Finland in Egypt
3 Abu El Feda Street, 13th floor, 11211 Zamalek
Phone: +20-2-736 3722
Fax: +20-2-737 1376
Office Hours: 8.30 - 16.15 Sunday - Thursday
FinlandFinnish Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of Finland in Alexandria, Egypt
2, El Horreya Avenue
Phone: (20-3) 486 4482
Fax: (20-3) 486 1993
FranceFrench Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of France in Cairo, Egypt
29 Avenue de Charles de Gaulle, BP 1777 - Guiza, Le Caire
Phone:  (2) 3 567 32 00
Fax:  (2) 3 567 32 01
FranceFrench Consulate in Cairo, Egypt
Consulate General of France in Cairo, Egypt
5 rue El Fadl, BP 1774 - Le Caire
Phone:  (2) 2394 71 50
Fax:  (2) 2394 71 60
FranceFrench Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Consulate General of France in Alexandria, Egypt
2 midan Ahmed Orabi, BP 474 - Manshieh - Alexandrie
Phone:  (3) 487 56 15 / 484 79 50 / 487 84 77
Fax:  (3) 487 56 14
GabonGabonese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Gabon in Cairo, Egypt
17 Rue Maka El Moukarama BP 2547, Dokki-Cairo
Phone: (20-2) 70 96 99
Fax: (20-2) 360 3796
GeorgiaGeorgian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Georgia in Cairo, Egypt
Mohandessin, 11 Tanta Street, Aswan Square
Phone: +(202) 3004-47-98
Fax: +(202) 3304-47-78
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Office Hours: 09.00-18.00
GermanyGerman Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Germany in Cairo, Egypt
2, Sh. Hassan Sabri, Zamalek
Phone: (00202) 739-9600
Fax: (00202) 736-0530
Office Hours: Sunday - Wednesday: 8:00 am to 12:00 am (visitors) Sunday - Thursday: 8:00 am to 11:00 am (passports and legalisations)
GermanyGerman Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of the Federal Republic of Germany in Alexandria, Egypt
Leader Group Shipping Services, 9 El Fawatem Street, Mazarita. Alexandria
City: Alexandria, Egypt
Phone: (0020 3) 486 75 03
Fax: (0020 3) 484 09 77
GermanyGerman Consulate in Hurghada, Egypt, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of the Federal Republic of Germany in Hurghada, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of the Federal Republic of Germany, 365, El Gabal El Shamali, Hurghada, Red Sea. Egypt
City: Hurghada, Egypt
Phone: (0020 65) 344 36 05 / (0020 65) 344 57 34
Fax: (0020 65) 344 36 05
GhanaGhanaian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Ghana in Cairo, Egypt
24 El Batal Ahmad'Abdel Aziz Street, Dokki
Phone: 704273, 704154, 704395
GreeceGreek Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Greece in Cairo, Egypt
18 Aisha El Taymouria, Garden City
Phone: (00202) 7950 443 or 795 5915 or 7951074
Office Hours: ---
GreeceGreek Consulate in Cairo, Egypt
Consulate General of Greece in Cairo
14, Rue Emad El Din, Cairo
Phone: (00202) 25753833, 25741085, 25741140
GreeceGreek Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Consulate General of Greece in Alexandria
63, Rue Alexandre Le Grand, Shatby, Alexandria
Phone: (00203) 4878454, 4878455
GreenlandGreenlandic Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Royal Danish Embassy in Egypt
12, Hassan Sabri Street, Zamalek, 11211 Cairo
Phone: (+20 2) 2739 6500
Fax: (+20 2) 2739 6588
Details: The Faroe Islands and Greenland are part of the Kingdom of Denmark. As a main principle, the Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Kingdom of Denmark are the responsibility of the Danish government.
GuatemalaGuatemalan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of The Republic of Guatemala in Cairo, Egypt
17 Port Said Street, 5th floor, Apt. 501 Cairo, Egypt
Phone: +202-23802914 - 23591498
HondurasHonduran Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Honduras in Egypt
15, 26th of July Street, 5th floor, Mohandessine, Apdo. Postal: 417 Gezirah, 11568, Zamalek
Phone: 00(202) 3344-13 37 Y 3347-75 43
Fax: 00(202) 3344-13 38
HungaryHungarian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Hungary in Cairo, Egypt
29. Mohamed Mazhar Str. Zamalek Cairo
Phone: 2735-8659, 2735-8634, 2735-6478, 2737-0019
HungaryHungarian Consulate in Cairo, Egypt
Consular Office of Hungary in Egypt
29. Mohamed Mazhar Str., Zamalek, Cairo
Phone: 2735-6478, 2735-8659, 2735-8634, 2737-0019
Office Hours: *filing of visa applications: Sun, Tue, Wed: 8:30-10:30 *issuing of visas and documents: Sun-Thu: 12:00-13:30 *filing of other consular affairs: Mon and Thu: 8:30-11:00 *Fri, Sat: closed
HungaryHungarian Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of Hungary in Egypt
47, Al Soltan Hussein Street, Al Khartoum Sq., , Al Azarita, Alexandria. , P.O.Box: 2234 Alexandria
HungaryHungarian Consulate in Port Tawfik, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of Hungary in Egypt
34, El-Gueish Street, Zaharia Tower, 5th Floor Suez,
City: Port Tawfik
Phone: 62-333-50-25; 00-20-12-214-78-15
IndiaIndian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of India in Cairo, Egypt
5, Aziz Abaza Street, Zamalek, P.O. Box No. 718, Cairo 11211
Phone: 00-20-2-27360052, 27356053
Office Hours: 08:00 hrs to 16:30 hrs from Sunday to Thursday
IndonesiaIndonesian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Indonesia in Cairo, Egypt
13, Aisha El Taimouria Street, Garden City, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (20-2) 794-7200, 794-7209, 792-5451, 792-5452, 794-7356
Fax: (20-2) 796-2495
IraqIraqi Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Iraq in Egypt
13, Aisha El Taimouria Street, Garden City, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: 00202 - 7358087
IrelandIrish Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Ireland in Egypt
22 Hassan Assem St, Zamalek
Phone: Telephone: +202 27358264, Visa Phone: +202 27356417
Fax: +202 27362863
Office Hours: Opening Hours: Sunday to Thursday from 9.00 12.00
Details: Ambassador: His Excellency Gerard Corr First Secretary: David Noonan Second Secretary: Garrett O'Brien
IrelandIrish Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Honorary Consul of Ireland in Alexandria, Egypt
55 Sultan Hussein Street, Azarita - Bab Shark
Phone: +203 4843316/17/18
Fax: +203 484 3320
Details: Honorary Consul: Hisham G Helmy
IsraelIsraeli Embassy in CAIRO, Egypt
Embassy of Israel in Egypt
6, SHARIA IBN-EL MALECK , CAIRO
Phone: 20 2 33321500
Fax: 20 2 33321555
Office Hours: SUN-THU 10:00-12:30
IsraelIsraeli Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Consulate General of Israel in Egypt
15, MINA ST. KAFAR-ABDOU , ROUSHDY , ALEXANDRIA
Phone: 20 3 5449501; 20 3 5449502
Fax: 20 3 5448136
Office Hours: SUN-THU 09:30-12:30
ItalyItalian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Italy in Cairo, Egypt
24, El Galaa Street, Boulaq, Cairo
Phone: 0020227730109, 0020227730110
ItalyItalian Consulate in Alessandria, Egypt
General Consulate of Italy in Alessandria, Egypt
Midan Saad Zaghloul, 25
Phone: 002034870095, 4870095
JapanJapanese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Japan in Egypt
9th Floor, Cairo Center Building, 2 Abdel Kader Hamza St., (106 Kasr Al-Aini St.), Garden City, Egypt
Office Hours: Office hours: 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 a.m., Sunday through Thursday Closed on Fridays and Saturdays
JordanJordanian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Jordan in Cairo, Egypt
6 Bassem Al Khateb Street, Al Tahreer Street, Duqqi, 00202
Phone: 00 + 20 + 2 7499912 / 00 + 20 + 2 7486169
Fax: 00 + 20 + 2 7601027
Office Hours: Monday - Thursday: 9:00-3:00 Sunday: 9:00-3:00
KazakhstanKazakhstani Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Cairo
9, Wahib Doss Street, , Maadi
Phone: +202-238-098-04, 235-928-10
Details: Ambassador Bahtyar S. TASYMOV
KenyaKenyan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Republic of Kenya in Cairo, Egypt
29 El Kods EL Sharif Street, Mohandesseen, Giza, P. O. Box 362
Details: Other countries of Accreditation: Kingdom of Morocco, Tunisia, Democratic People's Republic of Algeria, State of Eritrea and Jordan. Name of Ambassador: H.E. Daniel Makdwallo
KuwaitKuwaiti Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Kuwait in Cairo, Egypt
12 Nabil Al-Wakkad Street, Dokki
Phone: (+20-2) 3602661/4
Fax: (+20-2) 3602657
LatviaLatvian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Latvian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
8th Floor Abou El Feda Building, , 3 Abou El Feda Street,, Zamalek, Cairo 11211
Phone: (202) 2 738 41 88
Fax: (202) 2 738 41 89
LebanonLebanese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Lebanon in Cairo, Egypt
22 El Mansour Mohamed St., Zamalek
Phone: 27382823 -27382824 -27382826
LesothoBasotho Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Kingdom of Lesotho in Cairo, Egypt
10 Bahr El Ghazal St. , Saahafeveen, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: +202 7489545/7493211
Fax: +202 7489543
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
LiberiaLiberian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Liberia in Cairo, Egypt
Liberian Embassy , 9 Ahmed Samy EL Sayeh Sq. 4th Floor, Mohandseen
Fax: (+20) 237627194
Details: hours: Monday-Thursday10:00AM-5:00PM
LithuaniaLithuanian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Lithuania in Cairo, Egypt
Lithuanian Embassy , 23 Muhammad Mazhar Str., Zamalek
Phone: (+20) 2 736 6461
Fax: (+20) 2 736 4329
Office Hours: VII-IV 9.00- 17.00 Lunch Break 12.00-12.30 Consular section reception hours: Submission of documents: I-IV 9.00 - 12.00 (visa applications 9:00-11:00; legalization of documents 11:00-12:00) Issue of documents: I-IV 13.00 - 15.00
MacedoniaMacedonian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia in Cairo, Eqypt
3, Hasan Sabri, Lamalek
Phone: 202 735 15 85
Fax: 202 735 15 85
MalawiMalawian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Malawi in Cairo, Egypt
3 El Ismalia Street off Michael Bakhoum Street, , Dokki P.O.Box 118 Mohandessin
Phone: +202-748-0929 +202-335-3948
Fax: +202-748-0929 +202-335-3948
MalaysiaMalaysian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Malaysia in Cairo, Egypt
21, El Aanab Street, Mohandessine, Giza,, Arab Republic of Egypt
Phone: 00-2-02-3761 0013 or 00-2-02-3761 0019
Fax: 00-2-02-3761 0216
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Office Hours: Work day: Sunday - Thursday 8.00 am to 3.00 pm Holiday : Friday & Saturday
MaliMalian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Mali in Cairo, Egypt
3 Sharia El-Kawsar, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20-2) 3371614, 3371895
Fax: (+20-2) 3371841
MaltaMaltese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Malta in Cairo, Egypt
1 El, Saleh Ayoub Street , 2 floor, Apt. 24 , Zamalek, Cairo
Phone: 0020 (2) 736 2368/9; 0020 2 735 6717
Fax: 0020 2 736 2371
MaltaMaltese Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of Malta in Alexandria, Egypt
5 Ahmed Orabi St, Manchia, Alexandria, Egypt
Phone: 0020 (3) 484 4292
Fax: 0020 (3) 484 4793
MaltaMaltese Consulate in Suez, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of Malta in Suez, Egypt
40 Gohar El Kayed Street , Port Tawfik, Suez, Egypt
Phone: 0020 (62) 334 1316
Fax: 0020 (62) 333 0965
MauritiusMauritian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Mauritius in Cairo, Egypt
156 El Sudan Street Mohandesnen Cairo,, Egypt
Phone: +202-761-8102 +202-761-8103 +202-748-8275 +202-762-4914
Details: Citizens and residents of the United States (holding a Green Card or any valid long-term U.S. visa except B1/B2) can submit Mauritius visa application online.
MexicoMexican Embassy in The Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Mexico in Cairo, Egypt
17 Street Port Said, Floor 5, Apts. 502-503, 11431 Maadi
City: The Cairo
Phone: (202) 2358-0256, 2358-0258, 2358-0259
Fax: (202) 2359-1887
MongoliaMongolian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Mongolia in Cairo, Egypt
No.14, Str 152, Maadi
MoroccoMoroccan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco in Cairo, Egypt
10 Salah El Din Ayoub Street, 10 Salah El Din Ayoub Street,, Cairo
Phone: (+20-2) 3409677, 3414718
Fax: (+20-2) 3411937
MozambiqueMozambican Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Mozambique
24 Babel Street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20-2) 7486389, 7605505
Fax: (+20-2) 7486378
MyanmarMyanmar Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Myanmar in Cairo, Egypt
No. 24, Mohamed Mazhar St. , Zamalek, Cairo 11211
Phone: (202) 736 2644, 735 4176, 735 1568
Fax: (202) 736 6793
NepalNepalese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Nepal in Cairo, Egypt
23, Al Hassan Street,, Mohandessin-Dokki, Cairo,
Phone: 00202-37603 426, 37612 311
Fax: 00202-33374 447
NepalNepalese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Nepal in Cairo, Egypt
23, Al Hassan Street, , Mohandessin-Dokki,
Phone: 00202-37603 426 / 00202-37612 311
Fax: 00202-33374 447
NetherlandsDutch Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Royal Netherlands Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
18, Hassan Sabri, 11211 Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: +20 2 2739 5500
Fax: +20 2 2736 5249
Office Hours: Sunday through Thursday 08.00-15.30 hrs
NetherlandsDutch Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Consulate of Netherlands in Alexandria, Arab Republic of Egypt
2, Mohamed Massoud st., Wabbour El-Maya, Alexandria, Egypt
New ZealandKiwi Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
New Zealand Embassy in Cairo
Level 8, North Tower,Nile City Towers,, 2005c Corniche El Nil Ramlet Beaulac
Office Hours: Sun-Thur 0900-1600 hrs
NorwayNorwegian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Royal Norwegian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
8 El Gezirah Street, Zamalek
Phone: +20 2 2735 8046 / 2735 3340 / 2736 3955
Fax: +202 7370709
Office Hours: Visa section: Visitors: Sun, Mon, Wed, and Thu, 10:00-12:00 Phone calls: Sun-Thu, 13:00-15:30 Consular section: Visitors: Sun, Mon, Wed, and Thu, 09:00-12:00.
NorwayNorwegian Consulate in Port Said, Egypt
Royal Norwegian Consulate General in Port Said, Egypt
P.O. Box 22 , 39, el Gomhouria Street
City: Port Said
Phone: +206 6333 6710/40
Fax: +206 6333 6720
NorwayNorwegian Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Royal Norwegian Consulate General in Alexandria, Egypt
P.O. Box 622, 20, Patrice Lumumba Street, Bab Shark, Alexandria
Phone: +203 489 0221
Fax: +203 489 0121
OmanOmani Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Sultanate of Oman in Cairo, Egypt
52 Al-Higaz Street, Al-Muhandesin
Phone: (00202) 3036011 or 3035942
Fax: 303 6464
Office Hours: 8:30 - 3:00
PakistanPakistani Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Pakistan in Cairo, Egypt
8, El Saluli Street,, Dokki, Giza Cairo
Phone: (+20-2) 37487806, 37487677, 37604816-17
Fax: (+20-2) 37480310
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Office Hours: Monday-Friday 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m
PalestinePalestinian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Palestine in Egypt
33 Al-Nahda Street Dokki
Phone: 202-3609873 / 3602997 / 8
Email: email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org
PanamaPanamanian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Panama Embassy in Egypt
4a Ibn Zanki St., PO Box 62 El Zamelek
Phone: (+20-2) 7361093, 7361094
Fax: (+20-2) 7361092
ParaguayParaguayan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Paraguayan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
17 Port Said St. 4 floor No 43, Maadi, Cairo, Egypt, -
Phone: (+20) 2 735 0604, (+20) 2 378 2882
Fax: (+20) 2 735 1708
Office Hours: Sun-Thur: 9:00 - 17:00
PeruPeruvian Consulate in Cairo, Egypt
Embass of Peru In Cairo, Egypt
41 Al- Nahda Street, 2nd Floor Maadi, Cairo, Egypt, -
Phone: (+20) 2 359 0306 ; (+20) 2 359 0406
Fax: (+20) 2 750 9011
Email: email@example.com ; firstname.lastname@example.org
Office Hours: 10.00-16.00
PhilippinesFilipino Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Philippines in Cairo, Egypt
Road 200, Villa 28 Degla, Maadi, Cairo, ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT
Phone: (+202) 2521-3062/ 3064/ 3065
Fax: (+202) 2521- 3048
Email: email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com
Office Hours: Monday-Friday 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m
PolandPolish Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Consulate of Poland in Egypt
25 Talaat Harb St.
Phone: (+20-3) 4870407
Fax: (+20-3) 4869517
PolandPolish Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Poland in Egypt
5 El Aziz Osman Str.
Phone: (+20-2) 7367456, 7359583
Fax: (+20-2) 7355427
PolandPolish Consulate in Port Said, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of the Republic of Poland in Port Said
Street 23 July/Abd El Feda Str, P.O Box 335 , Port Said, Egypt, -
City: Port Said
Phone: (00-266) 332-48-79
Fax: (00-266) 324-60-94
PortugalPortuguese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Portugal in Egypt
El Saleh Ayoub Street Nr. 1, 3rd Floor, Apt 31 Zamalek
Office Hours: 8h30 - 14h30
PortugalPortuguese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Portugal in Egypt
El Saleh Ayoub Street Nr. 1, 3rd Floor, Apt 31 Zamalek
Office Hours: 8h30 - 14h30
QatarQatari Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the State of Qatar
Al-Thimar Street 10, Al Mohandisseen
Phone: (+20-2) 7604693/4, 7604689, 7603617, 7612749
Fax: (+20-2) 7603618, 7610901
RomaniaRomanian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Romania in Cairo, Egypt
6, El-Kamel Mohamed Street, Zamalek, Cairo
Phone: (00) (20) (2) 7360107 or (00) (20) (2) 7355326
Fax: (00) (20) (2) 7360851
RussiaRussian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Russia in Cairo, Egypt
Cairo, Dokki, Giza str., 95, Egypt
Phone: +202 748-9353, 748-9354, 748-9355, 748-9356
Fax: +202 760-9074
RwandaRwandan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Rwanda in Cairo Egypt
P.O.Box 485, 9 Sharia Ibrahim Osman, Madinet El-Mohandessin
Phone: (+20-2) 3461126, 3413224, 3462587
Fax: (+20-2) 3461079
San MarinoSammarinese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of San Marino in Cairo, Egypt
Rue Ramez 5, Mohandessin
Phone: (+20-2) 3602718
Fax: (+20-2) 760874
San MarinoSammarinese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of San Marino in Egypt
5, Rue Ramez Mohandessin
Phone: (+20-202) 7602718
SenegalSenegalese Consulate in Cairo, Egypt
Honorary Consulate General of Senegalin Cairo, Egypt
46 Sharia Abdel Moneim Riad, Mohandessin, Dokki
Phone: +20-2-3461039, 3460946, 3460896
SerbiaSerbian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Serbia in Cairo, Egypt
33, Al Mansour Mohamed St. Zamalek
Phone: (+20-2)-7354061 / +20-2-7365494/+20-2-7367094
SingaporeSingaporean Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Singapore in Cairo, Egypt
40 Adnan Omar Sedky St, Dokki 11511
Phone: (202) 749-0468/ + 20 - 2 - 3749 5045/ + 20 - 198 064 130 (For emergencies only)
Fax: + 20 - 2 - 3748 0562/ + 20 - 2 - 3337 4744 (Consul
Office Hours: Sun - Thurs 8.00 am to 3.30 pm Fri & Sat - Closed
SlovakiaSlovak Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Slovakia in Cairo, Egypt
3, Adel Hosein Rostom, Ramses Post Office, Dokki, Giza, PO Box 450, 11794
Phone: (+20-2) 3358240/+20-2-3357544/+20-2-3376901
Fax: (+20-2) 3355810
SloveniaSlovenian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Slovenia in Egypt
21 Soliman Abaza St., 6 th Floor Mohandessin
South AfricaSouth African Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
South Africa Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
55 Road 18, Maadi
Phone: (+20-2)-3594365, +20-2-3594950, +20-2-3594952, +20-2-3594975
South KoreaKorean Consulate in Cairo, Egypt
Consulate General of the Republic of Korea
3 + 5 Boulos Hanna Street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20-2) 3611234/8
SpainSpanish Embassy in Alexandria, Egypt
Embassy of Spain in Egypt
101, Av. The Horreya
SpainSpanish Consulate in Cairo, Egypt
Consulate of Spain in Cairo
41, Ismail Mohamed, Zamalek
Sri LankaSri Lankan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Sri Lanka
No. 8, Sri Lanka Street, Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20-2) 3400047, 3404966
Fax: (+20-2) 3417138
Office Hours: Office Days : Sunday to Thursday Office Hours : 8.00 a.m. to 3.15 p.m. Time Difference with Sri Lanka : -3.30 hours ( Winter ) last Thursday of September to last Thursday of April -2.30 hours ( Summer ) last Thursday of April to last Thursday of September
SudanSudanese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Sudan in Egypt
3 Ibrahim St. Garden City
SwedenSwedish Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Sweden in Cairo, Egypt
13, Mohamed Mahzar Street, Zamalek, Cairo, Postal Address: P.O. Box 131, 112 11 Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: +20 (2) 728 9200
Fax: +20 (2) 735 4357
Office Hours: Monday-Friday 9 a.m. to 12 noon Visa (applications and processing): Monday, Wednesday-Friday 9 to 11 a.m. Phone hours 1 to 3 p.m.
SwedenSwedish Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Consulate General of Sweden in Alexandria, Egypt
20, Patrice Lumumba Street, Bab Sharki, Alexandria, Postal Address: P.O. Box 622, 21131 , Alexandria, Egypt
Phone: +203-3906000 / +203-4890221
Fax: +203-4890121 / +203-4890123
Office Hours: 09:00 - 14:30 Sunday through Thursday
SwedenSwedish Consulate in Suez, Egypt
Honorary Consulate of Sweden in Suez, Egypt
11, Saad Zaghloul Street, Suez, Egypt
Phone: +20 (62) 341 667
Fax: +20 (62) 342 668
SwitzerlandSwiss Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Switzerland in Egypt
10, Abdel Khalek Saroit
Phone: (+20-2) 5758284
Fax: (+20-2) 5745236
SyriaSyrian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of the Syrian Arab Republic in Cairo, Egypt
18 Abdel Rahim Sabry, P.O.Box 435 Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
TanzaniaTanzanian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Tanzania in Egypt
9, Abdel Hamid Loutfy, Street, Dokki-Cairo, Arab Republic
Phone: (20-2) 3374286, 704446, 346017
Fax: (20-2) 704446
ThailandThai Embassy in Giza, Egypt
Embassy of Thailand in Giza, Egypt
Royal Thai Embassy, 9 Tiba Street, Dokki, Giza
Phone: (202) 3336-7005, 3760-3553-4
Fax: (202) 3760-5076,3760-0137
Office Hours: Sunday to Thursday 09.00 - 16.00 hours Consular Section (for Thai citizens) 09.00 - 12.00 and 13.30-16.30 hours Visa Application Hours 09.30 - 12.00 hours Visa Collection Hours 15.00 - 16.00 hours (Fridays and Saturdays are regular holidays)
TunisiaTunisian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Tunisia in Egypt
26 Sharia al-Gezira Zamalek
TurkeyTurkish Consulate in Alexandria, Egypt
Consulate of Turkey in Egypt
11 Kamel El Kilani Street
Phone: (+20-3) 794-3736 / 794-8364 / 796-3318
Fax: +20-3 795-8110
UgandaUgandan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Uganda in Cairo, Egypt
66 Road 10 Maadi
UkraineUkrainian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Ukraine in Cairo, Egypt
50, Road 83 Maadi
Phone: +20-2-3786871 / +20-2-3786872
Email: emb_et.@mfa.gov.ua, firstname.lastname@example.org
United Arab EmiratesEmirati Embassy in Giza, Egypt
Embassy of United Arab Emirates in Cairo, Egypt
4 Ibn Seena Street Al Jezaa, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: + 20 2 7766101/7766102
Fax: + 20 2 570 0844
United KingdomBritish Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
British Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
7 Ahmed Rageb Street, Garden City, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (002) (02) 27916000
Fax: (002) (02) 2791 6130
Office Hours: Sunday until Wednesday 8:00 am until 3:30 pm
and Thursday 8:00 am until 2:00 pm
United StatesAmerican Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of United States in Cairo, Egypt
8 Kamal el-Din Salah Street,, Garden City, Cairo, Egypt
Phone:   797-3300
Office Hours: Sunday-Thursday, 8:00 a.m.-12:00 noon
UruguayUruguayan Embassy in Zamalek, Egypt
Embassy of Uruguay in Egypt
6, Loutfallah, Zamalek, Cairo
Phone: (+20-2) 7353589, 7365137
Fax: (+20-2) 7368123
UzbekistanUzbekistani Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Uzbekistan in Cairo, Egypt
18, Saad El-Ali St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: +20-2-3361723 / (02) 3336.1723
VenezuelaVenezuelan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Venezuela in Egypt
43, Road 18, El Nahda Square, Maadi
Phone: +20-2-29812141/ +20-2-29812142
VietnamVietnamese Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Vietnam in Cairo, Egypt
Madina E1- Monawara St,Dokki, Cairo - Egypt
Phone: (2) 3371494
Fax: (2) 3496597
Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
YemenYemeni Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Yemen
28 Amin El Rafei Street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20-2) 7614224/5/6, 7604805/6
Fax: (+20-2) 7604815 / 7610869
ZambiaZambian Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Zambia Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
6 Abd ar-Rahman Hussein, Mohandessin Dokki, Cairo, , Egypt
Phone: (+20) (2) 7610282
Fax: (+20) (2) 7610833
ZimbabweZimbabwean Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Zimbabwe in Cairo, Egypt
40 Ghaza Street, Mohandessin, Cairo, Egypt
Phone: (+20) 2 3030404 / (+20) 2 305 9743
Fax: (+20) 2 3059741
There is a monopoly run on the Landlines in the country by Telecom Egypt, controlled by the government, however, a new company is also being set up to counter this. There are three companies that offer Mobile phone contracts with many of these contracts including 3G and 3.75G coverage.
There are eight major service providers which sell services to over 220 smaller ISP groups with the highest connection speed available as 24MB ADSL. Wireless connectivity is also being set up to try and establish a widespread information network across the country. Although the connectivity is incredibly good, it should be noted that the Egyptian Government had briefly shut off the connection in January 2011 and is capable of subsequently pushing further censorship.
Egyptian TV has two main channels, three satellite channels and six regional channels with the first main channel being in Arabic and the second one being in foreign languages, prevalently English and French.
Radio is nearly fully government controlled and uses 44 short-wave frequencies, 18 medium-wave stations and four FM stations, there are over seven regional stations which broadcast in 33 different languages.
Weather & Climate
Generally speaking, Egypt has a hot desert climate, but it can be cooler around the northern coastal strip due to the Mediterranean oceanic winds and can see temperatures as low as 2 degrees Centigrade (35.6 degrees Fahrenheit). The desert itself, however, is much, much hotter and can see temperatures rising as high as 41 degrees Centigrade (105.8 degrees Fahrenheit).
Alexandria, located on the coast, for example, tends to be around 14 degrees Centigrade (57.2 degrees Fahrenheit) in the winter months between December and February, and during the summer months between July and September tends to be around 27 degrees Centigrade (80.6 degrees Centigrade). The summer months can see absolutely no rain whatsoever and the winter months can see as much as 53mm of precipitation per month.
Luxor, located along the Nile in the desert, has hotter temperatures of around 33 degrees Centigrade (91.4 degrees Fahrenheit) in the summer months between June and August, and sees temperatures at around 14 degrees Centigrade (57.2 degrees Fahrenheit) during the winter months between December and February. Typically the city sees no rain all year around but may occasionally see 1mm of precipitation between September and November.
The Cleopatra Luxury Resort Sharm El Sheikh is possibly Egypt’s premier hotel and resort, featuring a beautifully large pool right next to the coastline and a resort complex integrated into the beach itself. The staff is known to be amazing and wait on each of their guests, hand and foot, providing a top quality service all year around.
Modern and claimed to be a Grade 5 Resort, the Aqua Blue Sharm is ideal for families and comes fitted with a huge waterpark and well over 533 various rooms of various sizes. The resort’s waterpark is the largest one in Sharm El Sheikh and the resort itself is only ten minutes away from Namma Bay with a regular free shuttle bus service available.
Overlooking the gorgeous Gulf of Aqaba, the Hotel Concorde of Sharm El Sheikh features a modern, sophisticated stylization and comes fitted with several pools, gardens and sports centers. Additionally, a diving centre, Turkish baths, a massage Jacuzzi and a health club with a sauna are included services for all guests of the hotel.
The Swiss Inn Resort of Sinai, Dahab, is hidden away brilliantly in between the desert and mountain range and sees quick access to the nearby beaches of the area whilst also being less than three kilometres from the town centre. Ideal for the avid diver and surfer alike, we known you’ll love the Swiss Inn Resort of Sinai, Dahab.
Praised as one of the best resorts in Dahab, the Iberotel Dahabeya is situated just a stone’s throw away from the beach allowing its guests easy access to the seaside whenever they wish, additionally, the hotel features a beach bar that regularly holds game nights, pub quizzes and the like, making it ideal for couples, individuals and families alike.
A quiet yet vibrant sunset, sapphire blue cool waters, a magical getaway for the whole family: The Oberoi in Sahl Hasheesh is located right on the edge of the Red Sea Coast, allowing quick and easy access to the nearby coastline and subsequent beaches whilst providing amazingly luxurious hotel premises and arrangements for the most distinguished of guests.
Children are not expected to have any additional documents to travel that an adult would not need. However, it’s important to note that Egypt, depending on where you are staying, may not be suitable for children as the locals can be fascinated by foreigners and are known to attempt to stroke the hair and faces of women and children, especially blonde-haired foreigners, with little regard to personal space.
All imported pets must be approved by the Government Veterinary Authority in their country of origin, this varies from country to country. Pets will also need to be implanted with a microchip compatible with international standards, an APHIS form 7001 issues within 10 days of departure from your vet and all necessary vaccinations including:
Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis
The certificate issued as proof of vaccination must have been issued within the last 12 months up to a minimum of 4 weeks before arrival and should state the name of the pet, the owner’s name, the pet’s breed, sex, birth date or age and the vaccines administered.
Education can be broken into four levels and all are free at a public school level:
Kindergarten is not compulsory but parents may choose to opt in their child as early as four years old.
Basic Education covers ages between six and fourteen. This includes Primary School for four years and Preparatory School for four years. This stage of education is compulsory and exams are held when the child is eight, eleven and fourteen.
Secondary School is at the second level and lasts for three years between ages 15 to 17. Exams are held when the child is sixteen and again at seventeen.
The Tertiary level covers the last level and allows students to advance into Higher Education.
The overall literacy rate has improved drastically in the last decade and today an average 72% of adults in the country are fully literate (81% males, 64% females). Private Schools are split into four types: Ordinary, which are more individual-centred variants of government schools, Language, which teach most of the curriculum in English but also have French and/or German as a second language, Religious, typically Azhar or Catholic schools and International, which follow the curriculum of another country such as the UK, US or France.
To work in Egypt you will require a Bachelor’s degree in a relevant subject for your chosen subject to teach, a PGCE, QTS or a Teaching Diploma, at least three years prior teaching experience and you must be a native English Speaker. Your qualifications should be obtained in the west (US, UK, Canada, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand or South Africa).
You must have all of the above to be accepted for most positions, additionally although a TEFL and other similar qualifications are not accepted as full teaching qualifications; you will increase your chances if you have these qualifications in addition to a teaching certification.
Always make sure to check our guide to VISA & Work Permit Restrictions.
Food can vary in price, with a restaurant ranging from EGP 30 to EGP 150 ($4.30 to $22 or £2.60 to £13) on average, a litre of water can cost as much as EGP 5.80 ($0.83 or £0.50), a litre of milk can cost as high as EGP 7.60 ($1.10 or £0.65), 500g of bread will set you back EGP 5.60 ($0.80 or £0.48) and 12 eggs will cost you EGP 11 ($1.60 or £0.94).
House prices are comparable in scale-to-price, with a 1 bedroom apartment outside the city centre costing EGP 890 ($130 or £76) and inside the city centre costing EGP 1,700 ($240 or £150), a three bedroom apartment looks more like EGP 2,200 ($320 or £190) outside the city centre but inside the city centre you should expect to pay closer to EGP 3,500 ($500 or £300).
Luxuries vary greatly but you can expect to pay EGP 16 ($2.30 or £1.40) for a pack of cigarettes, EGP 18 ($2.60 or £1.50) for a litre of beer and EGP 60 ($8.60 or £5.10) for a bottle of mid-range wine.
Held in Mokhtar Street Library, the Archaeological Society of Alexandria holds regular meetings four days a week and is responsible for many of the massive advancements into archaeological study in Egypt.
Friends of the Environment is a conservationist group in Alexandria concerned with the state and affairs of the environment in Egypt and are known to hold regular meetings in the sporting club for events, rallies and the like.
Like diving? You’ll love the British Sub Aqua Club of Cairo! The club organizes frequent trips out and dives, allowing for divers of all nationalities and experience levels to participate as well as offering a range of free training courses for all those looking to push their skills higher so that they can dive a little deeper.
With training sessions held at the crack of dawn for two days a week on Mondays and Wednesdays, the Cairo Rugby Club practices in the district of Maadi and owns its own clubhouse and equipment, allowing players of all experience levels to attend and welcoming newcomers and seasoned veterans alike.
Perhaps you’re a little more artistically inclined or see yourself as more of a craftsman/woman? The Cairo Art Guild provides a welcoming community atmosphere for anyone looking to participate in these disciplines and invites new members to try new sources of artwork and crafting prowess every two weeks.
The Technical Diving International Club is located on the coast of the Red Sea and features trained instructors, allowing anyone to progress to a level of mastery in diving or any diving-related discipline, the club organizes regular dives throughout the month.
Egypt is generally comparable crime-wise to most Western countries but crime rates in its cities, especially Cairo, are frequently high. These include petty crime such as pickpocketing and theft but also include motor vehicle theft, kidnapping, robbery, gang violence and assault. On a private level, white-collar crime such as smuggling, embezzlement, kickbacks, black marketeering, tax evasion and bribery are also common in the major cities.
Organized crime continues to be a problem as well as groups smuggle women for prostitution, including forced, into the country as their transit point, additionally, men, women and children are smuggled into and out of the country to work as domestic labourers and drug trafficking is frequent in the cases of cannabis, opium and heroin. Worst of all, on a political level up until recently, Corruption was frequent in the country’s politics and this in turn provoked Terrorism and religious violence, especially against tourists and religious minorities.
Fire Department: 180
Tourist Police: 126
Gas Emergency: 129