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About

The largest Arab state in western Asia covering over 2.1 million square kilometres of land and making the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia shares borders with Iraq, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait and Oman and holds a population of over 27 million people.

Considered an absolute monarchy, Saudi Arabia is ruled by the Al Saud Royal Family with the current king as Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud. The country has the second largest oil reserves in the country as well as the world’s sixth largest natural gas reserves; this has caused the country to develop the 19th highest Gross Domestic Product in the world. 


Stone Age History

It’s believed that pre-Islamic Arabs may have had civilizations in Saudi Arabia going as far back as 18,000 BC. These groups most likely included the Ubaid whose history stretches as far back as the 6th Millennium BC but only had activity from about 4500 BC onwards. The Ubaid disappeared around 3800 BC due to the land becoming too arid for nomadic activity. The Dilmun civilization also would have dwelled on the northern reaches of Saudi Arabia from the late 4th Millennium BC onwards.

Bronze Age History

The Dilmun civilization continued to flourish as an important trading centre through the bronze age starting at around 2600 BC, it’s believed that some time mid-way through this era, Dilmun began trading with Babylon in Mesopotamia, or modern-day Iraq. The civilization entered a golden age in 2200 BC which lasted for eight hundred years. Around the same time, the Umm an-Nar culture also became prominent in the region nearby modern-day Abu Dhabi, and began trading with other groups in the region.

By around 2300 BC, the A’adids and Maganites had appeared in South Arabia and the border shared with Oman and Yemen respectively. It’s believed that Magan traded extensively with Ur, another Sumerian city-state in Mesopotamia, as a result numerous roads and routes were devised and constructed across Arabia, connecting the two regions. Meanwhile the Ad had their first leader, Ad ibn Kin’ad, installed sometime between the 23rd and 10th century BC. The Midianites are also believed to have originated from the northern coasts of Saudi Arabia around this time before spreading out into southern Palestine and Jordan.

It’s believed that the Umm an-Nar culture split following 2000 BC into the Wadi Suq, which itself declined in 1600 BC. The last remnants of the Wadi Suq were able to set up an underground irrigation system around 1300 BC until they completely disappeared.

Iron Age History

The Thamud first appeared around the northern reaches in the 1st Millennium BC, being referenced first in 715 BC when their nation was captured by the Assyrian king Sargon II. Around 690-681 BC, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacked and captured Dilmun. However, by 567 BC, Babylon had taken the city. In 538, Babylon collapsed as a nation and Dilmun fell with it. Magan had also fallen prior to the collapse in 550 BC.

Around the 4th Century BC, the Ad installed Aldahn Khuljan as their leader. Legend states that Shaddad, historical king of lost Arabian city Iram of the Pillars. Shaddad is said in multiple sources to be the son of the original ruler of Ad, Utz, Aram, Shem and Noah and he’s even mentioned in nights 277, 278 and 279 of the Tales of the Arabian Nights. He’s believed to have ruled in turn with his brother Shadid over 1,000 Adite tribes and using their force, was said to have taken all of Arabia and Iraq.

1st Century – 15th Century History

The Ad nation finally fell around the 3rd Century AD and around the 7th Century AD the Thamud civilization also fell.

Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Ahd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim was born in 570 AD to the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe of Mecca. He lived a harsh life, first in the desert with foster parents after losing his father, and then with his mother, his only parent, whom died when he was six and left him an orphan. His grandfather cared for him for a while but passed away as well when he was eight, leaving him under care of his uncle Abu Talib, the newly appointed leader of the Banu Hashim. He picked up experience trading through trading journeys to Syria and eventually became a sharp merchant in his own right, trading between the Indian ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Due to his sharp mind and cultural tact, he was sought out as an impartial party by many people and is credited with settling numerous political matters between multiple clans and groups.

By adulthood, Muhammad had begun taking practice of praying alone for several weeks every year in a cave on Mount Hira near Mecca, tradition holds that he was approached by the angel Gabriel in 610 BC during one of these visits and was instructed to begin writing the Quran. He began preaching in the city of Mecca shortly afterwards but migrated to Medina to preach there in 622 BC, gathering supporters and followers wherever he went. Through his tactful political approach, Muhammad was able to unite the Arab tribes under the banner of Islam and create a single Arab Muslim polity in the Arabian Peninsula. He passed away in 632 BC and was succeeded by his father-in-law, Abd Allah ibn Abi Quhafah (Abu Bakr), as the first Caliph of Islam.

Abu Bakr was able to silence a rebellion by several Arab tribes in the Ridda Wars and went on to attack the Byzantine Empire. He was succeeded by one of Muhammad’s close companions, Umar ibn Al-Khattab (Umar I) upon his passing in 634 BC. Umar rapidly gained support of the people and was a gifted speaker, through his rule the Arab nation was broken down into provinces and then further down into districts, to allow for some autonomous rule. The Empire expanded greatly and by the end of Umar’s rule included Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Palestine, Egypt, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Armenia, Cyprus, most of Turkey and parts of southern Russia. He also launched efforts into setting up Canals for transportation, drinking water and irrigation, reforming public policy, expanding city walls, renovating the largest mosques and even was able to set up the first welfare state, free trade and save the nation’s population from various famines and plagues through quick political campaigns.

In 644 AD, Umar was assassinated via stabbing by a Persian slave named Feroz. Through political election Uthman ibn Affan, another companion of Muhammad, was elected into power, although not without opposition. However, despite the opposition, Uthman was able to increase the fixed allowance of the people by 25%, allowed the people to draw loans from the public treasury and withdrew restrictions on the sale and purchase of agricultural lands in conquered territories. He pushed military campaigns further into North Africa, Europe and Asia, managing to take territory in Sudan, Spain, Georgia, Turkmenistan and many of the islands in the Mediterranean Sea. These changes and advancements allowed the Arab state to prosper massively. Sadly however, the opposition against Uthman grew, after his compiling of the Quran as well as his favouritism in politics, until it exploded into full revolt and culminated in his assassination in 656 AD by rioters who had snuck into his house.

Uthman was succeeded by Ali ibn Abi Talib, a son-in-law of Muhammad; he initially refused to become the new Caliph but eventually agreed after feeling pressure from rebel forces threatening Medina. Ali was a convicted Muslim, driven by religious duty to war against erring Muslims and to avoid worldly goods, living in austerity. He also believed hugely in equality between all Muslims and distributed the entire revenue of the treasury evenly between them, and avoided favouritism in politics even though he had apt capability to do so. However, Ali took the Caliphate at a tumultuous time and had to decide whether to execute the rioters whom had killed his predecessor Uthman, debates turned into arguments and arguments turned into bloodshed, culminating in the Battle of the Camel the same year Uthman was assassinated and succeeded. This in turn sparked a civil war that would last until 661 AD. He was assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a deserter from his own forces, whom wounded him fatally with a poison-coated sword while prostrate in prayer in the Great Mosque of Kufa, Iraq.

Upon Ali’s death, the Caliph was split between supporters of Ali’s son Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib and Syrian governor Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (Muawiyah I) whom had had a long-running dispute and warring against Ali. Muawiyah rallied the commanders of his forces from Jordan, Syria and Palestine. He first attempted to negotiate with Hasan, trying to force him to give up the Caliphate, but after negotiations failed he began to negotiate with Hasan’s commanders, eventually convincing a few to leave Hasan’s army for large rewards. Hasan attempted to rally his troops but lead on the belief that he was preparing for battle, leading to some of his own troops rebelling and attacking him, some deferring to Muawiyah’s side. As skirmishes started, both Hasan and Muawiyah broke back into negotiations again and eventually Hasan ceded the Caliphate to Muawiyah, making him the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. Muawiyah proceeded to Kufa and demanded that all Muslims there pledge allegiance to him as a Caliph.

Muawiyah pushed military expeditions further, dominating North Africa entirely and continued the Welfare State, donating much of the treasury to the poor and needy. He died in 680 AD and passed leadership to his son Yazid ibn Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufyan (Yazid I), but Yazid in turn only ruled for three years before passing away in 683 AD.  His son Mu’awiya ibn Yazid (Muawiya II) ruled for a further four months before abdicating in 684 AD. Marwan ibn al-Hakam ibn Abu al-‘As ibn Umayyah (Marwan I) took control the same year. He ruled for a further year, mainly dealing with the civil war in Syria and waging war against Abdullah ibn Zubayr whom had taken over Iraq, Egypt and parts of both Syria and western Saudi Arabia. In the short year he ruled, he was able to retake Egypt and Syria from Abdullah. His son Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan took over in 685.

Abd al-Malik was able to reassert control over Iraq and Libya, as well as taking over new territory in Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania and Western Sahara and forcing the occupying Byzantines out of the region almost in their entirety. Meanwhile the inner workings of the Arab world saw renovations and Abd al-Malik instituted Arabic as a standard language across the entire empire, a uniform set of Islamic currency, reorganization and expansion of the postal service and the repairs of the Kaaba in Damascus. He passed away in 705 AD and was succeeded by his son Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Al-Walid I). Al Walid immediately began pushing military campaigns, taking Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, parts of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan and even more of Spain. Meanwhile he developed the welfare system further and built hospitals, educational institutions and art galleries and museums as well as the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Palestine. He was succeeded by his brother Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik upon his passing in 715 AD.

Sulayman was able to expand the Caliphate’s territory a little further, taking Turkmenistan and pushing a siege onto Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), ultimately it proved to be unsuccessful and he died from a serious illness while traveling to attack the Byzantine border in 717 AD. He was succeeded by his cousin, Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (Umar II) whom immediately pushed reforms to encourage education through offering of stipends to teachers. He also banned unpaid labour, drinking, public nudity and mixed bathrooms. Furthermore, he pushed public construction works for canals, roads, rest houses and medical offices throughout Persia, North Africa and Khorasan and distributed pasture lands and game reserves evenly among the poor for the purpose of cultivation. However, these moves angered the nobility and he died when a servant was bribed into poisoning his food. After his passing in 720, he was succeeded by his cousin Yazid bin Abd al-Malik (Yazid II).

Yazid was able to best the Kharijites for the first time in decades but his rule was cut short when he died of tuberculosis in 724 AD, ironically only months after a wizard prophesized Yazid reigning for forty years. He was succeeded by his brother Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. Hisham rapidly pushed more raids into Turkey, capturing much of the majority left, in addition he was successfully able to subdue the Hindu resistance forces in India and reassert Muslim rule there. Outside of battle, Hisham was also extremely successful, building more schools and overseeing the translation of many scientific and literary masterpieces from other cultures into Arabic. He quelled many revolts within the Arab world and pushed boundaries outwards into France and making it as far as Bordeaux, only being halted by Charles Martel, King of the Franks and Charlemagne’s great grandfather.

Hisham died in 743 AD from diphtheria and was succeeded by his nephew al-Walid ibn Yazid al-Malik (Walid II). Walid was known to take special care of the crippled and blind but was widely regarded as a corrupt and reckless ruler, allowing himself into being bribed for political positions and putting his political opponents into jail or dismissing them from their positions. He was eventually besieged in an assassination attempt in a castle outside of Damascus before being killed by Sulayman ibn Hisham’s forces in 744 AD. He was succeeded by Yazid ibn al-Walid ibn ‘Abd al-Malik (Yazid III) but his rule in turn was cut short and died of a brain tumour after only six months, he was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim ibn al-Walid, whom in turn abdicated after only a few weeks and was eventually captured and executed by the Abbasids in 750 AD. Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan (Marwan II) took over and spent the majority of his reign attempting to stop the fracture and dissolution of the Umayyad Caliphate, although he was able to push the Abbasid leaders out to Bahrain and India, he was ultimately defeated by Abu al-‘Abbas al-Saffah in the Battle of the Zab before being persued to Egypt and killed.

In 750 AD upon Marwan II’s death, Abu al-‘Abbas ‘Abdu’llah ibn Muhammad as-Saffah (Abul ‘Abbas al-Saffah) started the beginning of the Abbasid dynasty. He quickly set about diversifying government and armed forces, having Jewish, Christian and Persian representatives in Abbasid administrations and military positions. In addition, he pushed educational development even more so than his predecessors and built paper mills in Uzbekistan. However, his reign was relatively short, lasting only four years and dying of smallpox in 754 AD. He was succeeded by his brother Abu Ja’far Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur.

Al-Mansur tolerated other ethnic and religious groups more so than his predecessors and as a result, culture, literature and scholarship in the Islamic world flourished wildly. He encouraged Persian literature and artwork fully and this began to see the first large-scale dialogue between Arab and Persian cultures, as well as seeing massive conversions to Islam, roughly doubling the percentage of Muslims in the Caliphate. He even opened up dialogue with China, sending over four thousand Arab mercenaries to help the Chinese in their successful rebellion against An Lushan, securing himself a place in Chinese history. He died whilst travelling to Mecca, Saudi Arabia in 775 AD, when attempting to make the Hajj, a Muslim-centric pilgrimage, and was succeeded by his son Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi.

Al-Mahdi was extremely fond of music and poetry, rewarding poets and musicians extravagantly for their services and supporting the arts throughout his territories. He was also a keen politician, able to unite much of the Arab world and garnering the support of many powerful and wealthy families. Although as-Saffah and al-Mansur’s nephew, ‘Isa ibn Musa ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdallah ibn al-Abbas was designated before Al-Mahdi’s rule as the next in line following himself, Al-Mahdi deposed him from his position as heir-apparent and instead installed his own son, Abu Muhammad Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi. He was poisoned by one of his concubines in 785 AD and succeeded by his designated son, al-Hadi. However, despite garnering widespread support of the people, he died mysteriously in 786 AD, either from a stomach ulcer or through poison prompted by al-Hadi’s stepmother. He was succeeded by his younger brother Harun al-Rashid.

Harun developed Baghdad as the central city of the Islamic empire, developing its art and architecture massively. He strengthened relations with China further and was able to manage considerable military success. He became so beloved as a ruler than he was even incorporated into the tales of Thousand-and-One Nights, becoming legend. However, maladministration allowed for rebellion in Spain, Morocco, Tunisia, Yemen and Afghanistan and the Abbasid empire began to slowly fraction. He made matters worse by dividing the empire unevenly between his sons and stocking them with enough supplies to fight each other independently upon his passing, albeit unintentionally. He died of illness in 809 AD.

His sons quickly began to war against one another, with Muhammad ibn Harun al-Rashid (al-Amin) trying to turn Abu Ja’far Abdullah al-Ma’mun ibn Harun’s, his brother’s financial agents against him and demanding that al-Ma’mun acknowledge al-Amin’s son as heir. Al-Ma’mun was able to manoeuvre out of the situation. However, al-Amin ruled until he was deposed and killed in 813, upon which al-Ma’mun took power. Al-Ma’mun attempted to centralize religious power in the Caliphate through introducing a religious oath, called the Mihna, which required individuals to swear allegiance to the Caliphate and state that they believed the Quran to have been created, not written. This was mainly targeted at scholars and those of high intellectual, societal and religious standing but was considered controversial, especially after al-Ma’mun made public his sympathy for the Mu’tazili theology which frequently opposed traditional Muslim values. He died after consuming dates and falling ill, being succeeded by his half-brother Abu Ishaq Muhammad ibn Harun al-Rashid (al-Mu’tasim bi’llah).

Al-Mu’tasim is credited with radical changes to the caste system of the Islamic empire, with Arabs receding from government and his Turkish troops and families rising to prominence in central power. After denying several unsuccessful assassination attempts and revolts, he moved to found a new capital in Samarra, this included several sections for the market, the military and massive mosques built all across the city. A skilled commander, he frequently raided and engaged the Byzantine empire in battle various times. He fell seriously ill in 841 AD and died the following year, succeeded by his son Abu Jaffar Harun Al-Wathiq ibn Mutasim. Although Al-Wathiq was a devoted scholar and a patron of the arts, he also ruled the empire with an iron fist; imprisoning, torturing and executing anyone whom opposed him. He died in 847 AD and was succeeded by his brother, al-Mutawakkil ‘Ala Allah Ja’far ibn al-Mu’tasim.

Al-Mutawakkil was much like his brother but also driven by want of revenge for those who had mistreated him while his brother reigned. However, that said he still was able to keep a firm grip on the empire and marked the end of the peak of the Abbasid Empire. His popularity declined rapidly following his terrible treatment of the Jews, Christians, Sabians and Zoroastrians, eventually his own Turkish guard turned on him and murdered him, possibly in an assassination arrangement set up by his own son, in 861 AD. He was succeeded by his son al-Muntasir, but in turn he mysteriously died only a year later. He was succeeded by al-Mu’tasim’s grandson Al-Musta’in.

However, Al-Musta’in, being voted in by the Turkish military leaders, was not so warmly received. Riots broke out throughout Baghdad after Al-Musta’in’s repeated attempts to subdue the people, especially after several corps were killed after warring with Christians in Armenia and parts of Asia. The Turks found more and more resentment as time passed and this in turn was directed onto Al-Musta’in. He was eventually forced to abdicate in favour of Al-Mu’tazz, and although being promised a simple life, he was instead assassinated on order of Al-Mu’tazz. Al-Mu’tazz was even more cruel and reckless than his predecessor, assassinating two of his own brothers and squandering the treasury’s revenues. He refused to pay the city guards for their duties and in turn, they stormed the palace, took their rightful pay. Shortly afterwards, the rebels Salih and Musa tricked the Caliph into leaving his palace and beat him, left him in the sun and shut him away for three days. He died and was replaced by his cousin, Al-Muhtadi.

Compared to the last few Caliphs, Al-Muhtadi was incredibly righteous and just, however, he was also firm and his actions of throwing the singers, musicians, performers, games and alcohol out of the court drew much aggression towards him. He modelled his reign on Umar’s, seeing the Umayyad Caliph as the ideal ruler, but this also proved to be to his downfall as he was murdered by the Turks in 870 AD, less than a year after becoming Caliph. Many scholars believe he could have been one of the best Abbasid Caliphs given his demeanour, if only he hadn’t been killed so soon after his reign started. He was succeeded by Al-Mu’tamid, Al-Mutawakkil’s eldest surviving son, although his brother, Al-Muwaffaq, pulled all of the strings and held all the real power. When Al-Muwaffaq fell ill, he transferred his authority and essential control of the Caliphate to his son Al-Mu’tadid, and due to his popularity was able to replace Al-Mu’tamid’s own son as heir to the Caliphate. Al-Mu’tamid drank himself to death in 892 AD and Al-Mu’tadid took over.

From the moment he ascended to the throne, Al-Mu’tadid set about reunifying the now-fractured Caliphate, crushing those in battle that he could and diplomatically finding his way into power in other places; He took back much of Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Egypt, Syria, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Bahrain. Domestically, he was also able to stabilize and strengthen the position of the civil bureaucracy; he moved the capital from Samarra back to Baghdad and rebuilt much of it including the Great Mosque of al-Mansur, which he also greatly expanded. He became so successful and popular with his endeavours that the people began calling him al-Saffah the Second, however, this is also in allusion to his cruel and creative methods of torture whenever his wrath was aroused. He died in 902 AD from weakened health, or possibly poisoning, and was replaced by his son Al-Muktafi, but lacking the energy of his father he was unable to keep up and died in 908 AD.

Although replaced by Al-Muqtadir, the new Caliph had simply been installed on the throne by several senior bureaucrats whom knew him to be a weak man. This allowed them to effectively rule the empire and increase spending by the courts and military. However, this wasteful spending caused the courts to go effectively bankrupt and caused widespread rioting as a result. The rioting forced Al-Muqtadir to step down and his brother, Al-Qahir, ascended the throne in 932 AD. However, Al-Qahir was a terrible tyrant and extortionist, taking the wealth from and torturing Al-Muqtadir’s mother, sons and favourite subjects, he even went so far as to wall up his nephew alive. His tyranny grew until it was unbearable and eventually the vizier Ibn Muqla attempted to force a drunken Al-Qahir to abdicate. When the Caliph refused, his eyes were blinded and he was thrown into prison for eleven years, being released a beggar.

Although pious in nature, Abu ‘I-Abbas Muhammad ibn Ja’far al-Muqtadir (Ar-Radi) was made a tool at the hands of his chief minister, even upon his ascension to the throne in 934 AD. His reign was limited in view of his sphere of influence and found repeated betrayals by his ministers, eventually culminating in his fleeing from the capital and Al-Muttaqi succeeding him in 940 AD. Al-Muttaqi by this point had inherited a weakened Caliphate and after just four years was deposed and blinded by the Turkish General Tuzun, Tuzun replaced him with the Caliph’s cousin, Abdallah ibn Al-Muktafi (Al-Mustakfi). The Caliphate’s central capital Baghdad had seen better days to say the least, the nation was starving, troops were weakened and the courts were broke. Before long the masses fled from the city and it came under attack from the Buwayhid Sultan Mu’izz Al-Dawla. Al-Dawla blinded and deposed the Caliph much like his predecessor, his reign had only lasted a couple of years.

Abu ‘I-Qasim al-Fadl ibn al-Muqtadir (Al-Muti) stepped forth from the shadows after having hidden from the previous Caliph due to a bitter enmity between them, and in light of the Buwayid’s invasion of the city, began to have a voice in the court, albeit limited. He passed away in 974 AD and the rapidly declining power of the Abbasid Empire meant that Saudi Arabia effectively found itself in the hands of the Hashemite Sharifs of Mecca, believed to be descended from the Banu Hashim, the clan of Muhammad himself. However, they often saw themselves become controlled strongly by other ruling groups including the Fatimid Dynasty, the Ayyubid Empire, the Mamluk Empire and the Ottoman Empire. The Fatimids began this trend by installing descendants of Jaafar al-Musawi following their victory in conquering Egypt, eventually seeing the one Sharif they had installed, Abdul-Futuh, attempt to declare himself Caliph and forcing him to surrender the title less than a year later. However, many of their Sharifs did have much success, such as the conquering of Yemen by a Sulayhid Sharif in 1062.

Rapidly, the Sharifs realized the power limitations they had and began to hold a position politically avoiding the crossfire between the Fatimids and the Turkish Seljuk Empire, the predecessors to the later Ottoman Empire. However, in 1171, Saladin was able to overthrow the ruling Fatimids and before long, the Ayyubids were aiming to take Mecca in absence of the Fatimids, which they did so in 1200 when Sharif Qitada ibn Idris took power. This lasted for well over a hundred years, only coming to an end in 1350 when the Mamluks took the entirety of the Hejaz, it’s capitals and, by extension, the rest of Saudi Arabia. This in turn saw Jeddah strengthened when the Mamluks moved their main base of operations in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea there.



16th Century – 19th Century History

The Mamluk Empire persisted until it was replaced in 1517 by the Ottoman Turks. And before long, the Sharifs under Ottoman rule began pushing out into the Red Sea, starting in 1578, they repeated thwarted Portuguese attempts at invasion, whilst pushing also into the desert to stop raids from Nadji tribes.

These continued for hundreds of years under Ottoman rule, until, in 1744, the first Saudi state, also known as the Emirate of Diriyah, was established under Imam Muhammad ibn Abd Al Wahhab and Prince Muhammad bin Saud. It would be the predecessor to the Saudi family today. The pair conquered Nejd in central Saudi Arabia before moving on to expand out all the way to Kuwait and Oman’s borders, even conquering the rebellious highlands of ‘Asir. While Saud held the military front, Muhammad bin Abd Al Wahhab pushed diplomatically, writing letters to notable scholars, governors and leaders to remove polytheism from the surrounding countries of Iraq, India, Syria, Egypt and Yemen. However, Saud died in 1765 and passed leadership to his son, Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad Al Saud.

Eventually, Muhammad bin Abd Al Wahhab and Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad Al Saud passed away and the power ended up in the hands of Saud bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud in 1765.

In 1801, Saud forces were able to take control of Karbala, the Shi’a holy city and they destroyed graves and monuments to many Islamic saints in an attempt to wipe out polytheism. Saud forces took more control, taking even more of the country including Hejaz, Mecca and Medina in 1805. On top of this, the Wahhabis had begun to attack Ottoman caravans and in turn had put a strain on Ottoman resources. These captures and attacks finally got under the skin of the ruling Ottoman Empire and sparked the Ottoman-Saudi war in 1807 when the viceroy of Egypt under the Ottoman Empire, Muhammad Ali Pasha, was ordered to retake Mecca, and more notably, destroy the first Saudi state.

He responded in 1811 by sending his son, Tusun Pasha, to Yanbu on the western coast of Arabia with 10,000 men. The Saud battalion of 70 surrendered without question. The Pasha forces began using Yanbu as a base of operations after the bloodless surrender and quickly attacked Medina within a year. They met with Saud forces in a valley just outside of the region. However, the Saud military was an even match for the Pasha forces and with the help of a force equal in size to the Pasha one, as well as cavalry, they successfully defended Mecca and after 3 days of brutal combat, the Pasha forces drew back to Yanbu.

Later on in the same year of 1812, Ali Pasha sent Ahmet Aga with 10,000 more men to help support Tusun’s forces and captured Medina. In 1813, the Pasha forces moved further into Jeddah and took it without difficulty, before meeting with another supply of soldiers from Ali Pasha. With an army 25,000 strong, the Pasha forces took Mecca upon surrender from the Saud forces numbering only 1,000. Meanwhile, Saud passed leadership of the first state to his son, Abdullah bin Saud, in 1814.

The Pasha forces quickly captured ‘Asir, before attacking Nejd several years later in 1817. By now, Ibrahim Pasha had taken control of the Pasha forces and they numbered over 30,000. He quickly rendered the villages throughout the region under his grip and took Nejd in 1818. By the end of the same year, Ibrahim had subdued Diriyah, the origins of the First Saudi State. He returned to Egypt a year later to focus on the revolt by the Greeks, leaving the country back in the hands of the Ottomans. Abdullah, meanwhile, was taken prisoner after his surrender in 1818. He was transported with two of his followers to Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) and was publicly beheaded by Ottoman officials as both a deterrent to revolt and to show support to the Shi’a Muslims whose sacred graves and monuments had been destroyed by the First Saudi State.

However, the remnants of the First Saudi State quickly started the Second Saudi State, also known as the Emirate of Nejd, starting with Imam Turki ibn Abdallah ibn Muhammad taking Riyadh. He quickly had to go into hiding to avoid capture after the fall of Diriyah, and only emerged to lead a revolt against the Ottoman Egyptian forces still in the country in 1821. He was assassinated by his cousin, Musharim bin Abdul-Rahman in 1834 and was succeeded by his son, Imam Faisal bin Turki. Faisal and his military forces rapidly returned to Riyadh from their expedition in al-Hasa and stormed the castle, killing Mushari, whom had usurped the throne, and those directly involved with the murder. The town pledged allegiance to Faisal without question, but he was forced to flee after the Ottoman-Turk and Egyptian forces attempted to capture him. He was eventually captured but escaped and turned to Riyadh in 1843.

His four sons, Abdallah, Saud, Abdul Rahman and Muhammad bin Faisal, repeatedly fought over the Saudi State after his death. The control passed between the former three with Abdallah first taking control in 1865 upon his father’s passing, then control quickly being shifted to Saud in 1871, before shifting back to Abdallah in the same year, back again to Saud in 1873, on to Abdul Rahman in 1875, back to Abdallah in 1876 and then back once more to Abdul Rahman in 1889. By this point in time, Abdul Rahman was the undisputed leader of Al Saud but the central city of Riyadh and the Second Saudi State had fallen into pieces. He was defeated subsequently in the Battle of Mulayda by the Rashidi leader whom had managed to ally many of the Arab clans and then forced him to flee into the desert with the rest of the Al Saud family. With his defeat, he gave up all hope of continuing the Saudi State and the Second Saudi State was ended.

20th Century History

In 1901, Abdul Rahman’s son, Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud, more commonly known as Ibn Saud, had begun launching raids with some relatives in the Najd region on their long-time enemy, the Rashidis and their associated tribes. As they made a large amount of profit from the raids, their forces grew in number until they numbered over 200. One day in Autumn 1902 during Ramadan, while camping in the Yabrin Oasis, Ibn Saud decided to attack Riyadh. Under cover of nightfall, he and forty others entered the city over the city walls on tilted palm trees, they broke into the fortress and killed the governing Rashidi official in front of it. This marked the start of the Third Saudi State. Ibn Saud rapidly called their allies to arms, keeping his forces well stocked and prepared for battle at all times, he quickly grew in popularity due to his charisma. By 1904, he had retaken around half of the Najd region from the Rashidis. Ibn Rashid, head of the Al Rashid, appealed to the Ottomans for military aid and they responded by sending troops to help him strengthen his forces. In the same year, he attacked and crushed Ibn Saud’s forces, forcing them to commit to guerrilla warfare. Through this newfound warfare, he was able to cut off the Rashidi supply routes and force them to retreat in turn.

By 1912, Ibn Saud had completely dominated the Najd region as well as the eastern coast of Arabia. After establishing himself among the communities, Ibn Saud founded a military-religious brotherhood called the Ikhwan and instituted an agrarian policy in order to dismantle the tribal Bedouin and settle them into colonies, in a successful attempt to ally them with the newly-founded Ikhwan. As World War I began, diplomatic relations were opened between the British and Saudi governing forces and they entered into a treaty in 1915 which made Al Saud lands a British protectorate. Ibn Saud agreed to the terms of the treaty, especially as one of them instigated war between himself and Ibn Rashid, his long-time enemy and an ally of the Ottomans, whom were warring against Britain at the time.

With the newly-found supplies, munitions, weapons and funds from the British, Ibn Saud launched a full-on-out campaign against the Al Rashidi in 1920. Less than two years later he had completely decimated their forces. This defeat allowed Ibn Saud to barter a better treaty with the British forces, resigning them to accept his new territory as that of Saud ownership, however, in exchange he also had to acknowledge newly-acquired British territories in the Persian Gulf coast and in Iraq. Although previously the British had supported Sharif Hussein bin Ali as ruler of Mecca and, by extension, Emir of the Hejaz region, Ibn Saud pushed into Mecca and took it fully in 1925. By 1926, the leaders of Mecca, Medina and Jeddah acknowledged Ibn Saud as King of the Hejaz. A year later, the Treaty of 1915 was abolished and the treaty of 1927 was signed, with the British government acknowledging the independence of the Hejaz and Najd under King Ibn Saud. Another year later, Ibn Saud’s forces had completely overrun the central Arabian peninsula, but he lost the support of the Ikhwan when he prohibited raiding. They rebelled the same year but were suppressed completely by 1929. Uniting the country finally in 1932, Ibn Saud was proclaimed King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, he passed away in 1953 and passed his rule to his son, Saud bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud.

Saud made many of his own family members ministers, including setting his sons Fahd as Minister of Defence, Musaid as Leader of the Royal Guard, Khalid as Commander of the National Guard, Saad as Head of the Special Guard, Mohammaed as the second Minister of Defence, Badr as Governor of the Riyadh Province and Abdallah as Governor of the Makkah Province. These moves worried and antagonized the king’s half-brothers whom believed the king’s sons to be too inexperienced for their positions, and that he would select one to succeed him instead of passing rule to one of his own siblings. To make matters worse, his decisions did not favour any particular group and many times seemed made entirely on a personal whim, his inadequacy with government affairs, especially with new issues such as the importation of foreign labour, caused numerous strikes across the country across the years of his rule. To boot, he welcomed members of the Islamic Extremist group the Muslim Brotherhood, which was fleeing from Egypt at the time, due to their ability to challenge Egypt.

On the international scene, he also caused a ruckus with deep involvement of the politics of other countries. First heading the coalition between Egypt and Syria for neutrality yet siding with Egypt in their takeover of Suez Canal, then severing his ties with France and Britain and withholding oil shipments to them due to the Saudi-British dispute over Buraimi Oasis. At this time, the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union had started and the US gave him a loan of $250 Million towards defence costs, yet Egypt and Syria, with a neutral stance in the war, opposed the loan. Due to his decision of siding with Egypt over Suez, his oil exports declined, and due to siding with the US over the loan, he became opposed by the Arab Nationalists and Nasserists which were growing in number under Egypt’s leader Gamal Abdel Nasser. Nasserism most strongly called for the destruction of the Arab world’s monarchies, in which Saudi Arabia was a prime target. After Syria began a plot to overthrow Jordan’s monarchy, the King of Jordan, Hussein bin Talal, appealed to him for help, he responded by sending troops to strengthen Jordan’s forces and to play a role in helping unite Jordan and Iraq against Nasserism. Saud even went so far as to try to break up the United Arab Republic and was accused of plotting to assassinate Nasser himself. For the next decade, Saudi Arabia became involved in conflict with the-now Soviet-backed Egypt over the political disputes.

Inside of the family, King Saud and his brother, Prince Faisal, began a bitter power struggle, this was only resolved when Saud left the country for medical treatment in 1962. Faisal rapidly allied with his brothers, Princes Fahd and Sultan, promising to exclude Saud’s sons from the new government, to abolish slavery and to establish a judicial council. Saud attempted to fight back through threats of mobilizing the Royal Guard against Faisal, but Faisal in turn mobilized the National Guard against Saud and forced him to abdicate in 1963, forcibly taking the throne and exiling Saud to Geneva, Switzerland. Finding support widely after he came into power in 1964, he made good on his promises, balancing the country’s budget, establishing schooling inside the country as a standard and developed the country’s administrative regions, which in turn laid the foundations for modern welfare systems. He also began television broadcasting in 1965 and in 1967 he appointed Prince Fahd as the second Prime Minister. In 1969, Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi successfully overthrew Libya’s monarchy in a coup d’état and in response, Faisal began pushing stronger measures against dissent and instated a complex security apparatus, he even went so far as to arrest hundreds of military officers and even a few generals that were involved in an alleged coup d’état.

In 1970, Nasser passed away and Faisal grew close to Egypt’s new president, Anwar Sadat, whom planned to break away from the Soviet Union and to make ties with the United States. In response to the 1973 Arab-Israeli war launched by Sadat, Faisal withheld Saudi oil from the world markets in protest over western support for Israel. His actions dramatically increased the value of oil and accidentally started the 1973 Energy Crisis. In 1975, his half-brothers son, Prince Faisal bin Musaid, whom had just returned from the United States, shot King Faisal at point-blank range. He died shortly afterwards in hospital of blood loss. Prince Faisal in turn was tried and sentenced to death, being publicly executed via beheading later on in the same year. Faisal was succeeded by his brother, Khalid bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud. King Khalid’s reign focused around the country’s inner issues and saw great developments in agriculture, health care, infrastructure and education (around 2000 new schools were established during his reign as well as the world-reputed King Faisal University), as a direct result, financially, the country thrived. Internationally, Khalid was more reclusive than Faisal had been, avoiding international politics diplomatically, but negotiating peace in 1975 over Al Buraymi Oasis in 1975 between Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi (now the United Arab Emirates) and Oman, as well as supporting Syrian and Lebanese Muslims in their civil war in the same year and supporting Iran in the 1979 Islamic Revolution.

He also supported Iran unofficially in the 1980 Iran-Iraq war and restablished diplomatic relations with Britain in 1981 and secured 60 F-15 Fighter Jets from the US as well as a Boeing 747 in 1982. Over the course of his life, Khalid suffered from a terrible heart ailment and had repeated heart attacks; he finally died of one in 1982. He was succeeded by his brother, Prince Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, in the same year. King Fahd was a great supporter of the United Nations, supporting foreign aid through donation of 5.5% of all of Saudi Arabia’s national income and giving $1 Million a month to the Bosnian Muslims during the Yugoslav Wars and the Nicaraguan Contras during the second half of 1984. He also opposed Israel, supported Palestine and was a close ally of the United States. In 1986, he replaced the title ‘His Majesty’ to ‘Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques’ and spent millions of dollars on religious education, presiding over a strict Islamic policy within the country. Most notably, he led the Arab world against the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in 1989 and made close ties with Syria and Egypt.

By 1990, Iraq had invaded Kuwait and in response to this, Fahd agreed to host US troops in Saudi Arabia, even allowing several US military bases to be set up there as a deterrent against the Iraqi forces. This triggered a large amount of criticism from the Saudi nationals who were not comfortable with the multitude of foreign troops in the region and is thought to have spurred on Al Qaeda’s opposition to the Saudi royal family. In 1992, he also showed his limited aptitude to reform when he persecuted, imprisoned and fired several groups of Saudi intellectuals petitioning him for reforms to the country’s international diplomatic relations and the royal family’s spending, among other things. He also spurred on controversy with a $90 Billion purchase of weaponry, aircraft and military supplies from the United Kingdom, of which the funds were meant to have been originally planned to be spent on building educational institutions, medical facilities and a greater infrastructure. He suffered a stroke in 1995 due to his heavy smoking and obesity, and subsequently made the decision to allow Crown Prince Abdullah to run the Kingdom in 1996. However, within a matter of months, Fahd resumed his duties once again.

21st Century History

After deadly bombings in Saudi Arabia commenced in 2003, King Fahd condemned the terrorists involved with the attacks and is quoted saying he would “Strike with an iron fist” and rapidly pushed Muslim clerics and religious leaders to emphasize peace, justice and tolerance. Due to his rapidly deteriorating health, his son, Crown Prince Abdullah, began to make meetings and trips for him.

In 2005, Fahd was admitted to the King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh and passed away only months later. He was succeeded by his brother, Prince Abdullah ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud. King Abdullah pushed rapidly for educative programs allowing over 70 thousand Saudi students to obtain scholarships to study abroad in over 25 countries, including in the US and the UK. He also pushed for public health reforms in regards to breast cancer awareness and CDC cooperation. Additionally, he pushed for strong education to attack the roots of extremism that started Al Qaida.

In 2007, in a move that put the world in awe, King Abdullah visited Pope Benedict XVI in the Apostolic Palace.

A year later in 2008, he called for a “Brotherly and sincere dialogue between believers from all religions” and held a conference in Mecca, urging Muslim leaders to speak with one voice with Jewish and Christian leaders, gaining approval from some of Saudi Arabia’s most prominent Islamic Scholars to hold the interfaith dialogue later on the same month in Spain. These moves also spurred on the “Peace of Culture” which took place at the UN’s General Assembly, bringing together both Muslims and Non-Muslims alike to eradicate preconceptions of Islam and Terrorism. The historic movement brought together some of the world’s most prominent leaders including King of Jordan Abdullah II, former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, US President George W. Bush and Israeli President Shimon Peres.

In 2009, Abdullah installed his pro-reform son-in-law, Faisal bin Abdullah, as the Minister for Education and appointed US-educated former teacher, Nora Al Fayez, as deputy education minister.

By 2010, Abdullah had successfully restructured the country’s priorities, introducing training for Sharia judges, overhauling business startup protocol in Saudi Arabia and building the King Abdullah University for Science and Technology. His measures also included diversifying the kingdom’s economy out to include tourism, mining, solar energy and many other sectors, and dedicated 25% of the country’s budget towards education alone. After the Arab Spring, Abdullah pushed $37 Billion into jobless benefits and improving the welfare state, as well as extended education.

In 2011, Abdullah granted women the right to vote in the upcoming municipal council elections of 2015, as well as stating that with time they would be given the right to take part in the unelected Shura, a body responsible for moderating the powers of the monarchy and council. Signing an agreement between Austria, Spain and Saudi Arabia, the King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz International Centre for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue in Vienna was established and opened a year later.

In 2012, he dismissed the head of Saudi Arabia’s religious police and replaced him with a milder cleric. Later on in the same year, it announced its allowance for women athletes to participate in the Olympics for the first time ever.

In 2013, Abdullah appointed thirty women to the Shura and modified existing laws limiting the amount of women allowed into power. In the same year, the cabinet criminalized psychological, physical and sexual abuse as well as domestic violence in general following a Twitter campaign.

America has attempted to strengthen its ties with Saudi Arabia in 2014 when President Barack Obama visited Abdullah and assured him that America intended to strengthen Saudi Arabia during the Syrian war. 

Wording
Phonetic
English
     
Salam Sah-lam Hello/Hi
Ma a salama
 
Mah ah sah-lah-mah Good Bye!
Hal tatakallamo alloghah al Enjileziah / Alarabiah? Hahl tah-tah-kah-lah-moh ahl-oh-gah ahl Ehn-jill-ehz-ee-ah / Ah-lah-rah-bee-ah Do you speak English / Arabic?
Esmee… Ehz-mee My name is…
Hal beemkanek mosa’adati Hahl beam-kah-nehk moh-sah-ah-dah-tee Can you help me?
Abhatu an… Ahb-hah-too ahn I’m looking for…
Na’am / Laa Nah-ahm / Lah Yes / No
Assayed / Assayedah / Al Anesah Ah-say-ehd / Ah-say-ehd-ah / Ahl Ah-ney-sah Mr / Mrs / Miss
Alyawm / Al aan Ahl-yorm / Ahl Ahn Today / Now
Ghadan / Albareha Gah-dahn / Ahl-bah-reh-ah Tomorrow / Yesterday
Haza / Zalek / Huna / Hunak Hah-zah / Zah-lek / Hoo-nah / Hoo-nahk This / That / Here / There

Phrases

Above is a few common Arabic phrases to help you get around.

Languages

The national language of the United Arab Emirates is Arabic and in a majority of the area the Gulf dialect is spoken. However, due to British influence throughout the region for the past few hundred years, English is widely spoken and is a necessity when applying for work in the United Arab Emirates.


Other frequently spoken languages include Persian spoken by the Iranian population, Malayalam spoken by Malayali Indians, Pashto spoken by Pashtun, Tagalog spoken by Filipinos and Hindu-Urdu spoken by South Asians. Additionally, small pocket populations of Chinese, Japanese and Indonesian people also exist within the UAE, as well as other Asian groups which speak their own respective languages.

Religion

In Saudi Arabia, 25 of the 30 million inhabitants consider themselves Muslim, around 83% of the total population. However, the 17% are immigrant workers and of those left, 100% are thought to be Muslim. Of these, around 85-90% of the Muslim population are Sunni while 10-15% are Shia. Most dominantly, Wahhabism (also known as Salafism) is the most prominent Sunni sect.

In the country, no other religion is allowed to be practiced. Indeed, acts of religion outside of Islam are completely prohibited. That said, over a million migrant workers are thought to be Christian, around 3% of the population. There are a few Hindus and Buddhists across the region also. Additionally, converting from Islam to any other religion, also known as apostasy, carries the death penalty, although there have been no reported executions for this in recent years, and becoming a Muslim from another faith is also illegal. Atheism is also officially considered a form of terrorism in Saudi Arabia in article one of Royal Degree 44.

Museums, Galleries & Architecture

Islamic architecture is primarily based around symmetrical, circular and floral designs and sees many spires on mosques, as well as domed roofs. Saudi Arabic is considered the cradle of Islamic and Arabic culture and it would make sense that the holiest sites are based in the country including the Masjid al-Haram Mosque in Mecca and the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi Mosque in Medina, the mosques respectively house the Kaaba and Muhammad’s tomb and keep very strongly to Islamic architectural styles.



Sadly due to vandalism by Saudi Wahhabism followers, a wide majority of sites have been destroyed over the years and today over 300 historic sites linked to Muslim inheritance, especially those centred around Muhammad and his family & companions, have been lost. In Mecca alone there are less than 20 structures that date back to the time of Muhammad.

Clothing, Dress Style & Etiquette

Saudi dress follows Islamic principles of modesty and sees full-body covering as standard in the country.

For men, this includes the Thawb (a normally white garment which covers the entire body from neck to ankles, complete with long sleeves), the Gutrah (a headdress made of a square of cloth), the Agal (a ring-shaped head binding used to keep the Gutrah on the head) and the Bisht (a thicker cloak worn over the top of the Thawb for either special occasions or in cold weather).

Women typically wear the Abaya (a black long-sleeved cloak covering the entire body from neck to ankles), the Hijab (a head covering) and often, the Niqab (a facial covering allowing only the eyes to be seen).

Literature, Poetry, Music & Dance

Saudi music is very similar to the surrounding Arab states, instruments include the Rababah (a three-string fiddle), the Tar (a Tambourine) and the Tabl (a Drum). Music is associated heavily with poetry and songs are sung as such. Dances performed with music include the ‘Ardah which features a line of men, often armed with swords and/or rifles, whom dance to the beat of percussion instruments.


Saudi literature has developed slowly due to heavy censorship, and outside of Bedouin poetry, known as Nabati, there are only a few well-reputed authors. These authors include Ghazi Algosaibi, Turki al-Hamad, Abdelrahman Munif and Rajaa al-Sanea.

Calendar & Events

Starting at a different time of year each year (Late July for 2014, Mid July for 2015 and Early July for 2016), The Feast of the End of Ramadan, known as Eid ul-Fitr or more simply, Eid, is celebrated and sees families and local communities joined in huge feasts following the month-long daylight fast of Ramadan. The celebrations last for ten full days.

Also starting at a different time of year each year (Late September for 2014, Mid September for 2015 and Early September for 2016), The Feast of the End of Hajj, known as Eid ul-Adha, is celebrated to mark the end of the Hajj pilgrimage which sees many Muslims travelling to Mecca. The celebrations last for ten full days.
On September 23rd, Saudi National Day is celebrated to remember the Unification of the Kingdom, it’s known locally as Al-Yaom-ul-Watany.

Unlike other countries around the world, Saudi Arabia is unique in the fact that it follows the Islamic calendar rather than the Gregorian calendar, and as such it does not celebrate New Years’ Day on January 1st at all.  

Money

Saudi Arabia uses the Saudi Riyal as its currency, abbreviated as SAR, it can be divided down into 100 Halalas. SAR 1 is equal to about $0.27 or £0.17.
Coins are available in 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 Halala amounts. 25 Halala coins are also known as 1 Qirsh coins, 50 Halala coins are also known as 2 Qirsh coins, 75 Halala coins are also known as 3 Qirsh coins and 100 Halala coins are also known as 4 Qirsh or 1 Riyal coins.

Bank Notes are available in 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 Riyal amounts.

Economy

Saudi Arabia’s economy is strongly oil-based and the country is known to possess at least 18% of the world’s petroleum reserves. It has a labour force of around 7.63 million and growing, with around 80% of these being expatriates. The expatriate-majority workforce has around 6.7% of its workers involved in agriculture, around 21.4% involved in industry and the other 71.9% involved in services.

The country mainly trades with the United States (14.3% exports, 13.2% imports), China (13.7% exports, 13.5% imports) and South Korea (9.9% exports, 6.7% imports), but also trades majorly with Japan, Singapore, India and Germany. Today the country’s GDP is worth around $0.9 Trillion and has a GDP growth at a rate of around 5% annually.



Banking

Saudi Arabia’s banking system is very similar to that in the west and has two main types of accounts, Current Accounts, which may offer lower interest rates but better flexibility, and Savings Accounts, which allow for a higher interest rate but may restrict access to funds. It’s also important to note that Saudi Arabia’s banks frequently offer Islamic Banking and Personal Finance services which are conducted in accordance with the Quran.

Taxes

Saudi Arabia does not tax individuals through Income Tax, whether a Saudi national or an expatriate. However, it taxes all expatriates through Investment Income at a rate of 20%, Capital Gains at a rate of 20%, and Zakat, a religious levy, at a rate of 2.5% of an individual’s net worth.

Companies are also frequently subject to Zakat at the same rate as individuals and may also be subject to Social Security at a rate of 18% and a further 2% for Occupational Hazards Insurance. 

Saudi Arabia has an incredibly diverse amount of cuisine due to the wide range of cultures that the country has interacted with, but many of the dishes hail from local neighbours such as Egypt, the Levant and Yemen. Dishes may include Shawarma (grilled and shaved meat, usually lamb, turkey, veal, chicken or a combination, served in a wrap or on a plate), Falafel (deep fried dough-balls made from ground fava beans, chickpeas or a combination) and Laban (buttermilk). Additionally, a wide range of fast-food chains are available in the country including Burger King, Hardee’s, McDonalds, KFC, Domino’s Pizza, Pizza Hut and Papa John’s.


Drinks commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia includes tea, which is usually drank black (without milk), as well as Gahwa (coffee) and milk (typically sheep, goat and camel milk).

Due to Islamic dietary laws, pork is forbidden for consumption and is unable to be found for purchase across Saudi Arabia. Alcohol is similarly forbidden and all meat is butchered and blessed according to Islamic tradition in order to make it Halal meat. As a result, meat in Saudi Arabia is mainly lamb and mutton, contributing to Saudi Arabia being the world’s fifth largest importer of the two meats. 

VISA Requirements

Saudi Arabia requires a visa from all countries around the world with the exception of citizens of the Gulf Cooperation Council, these include:

  • Bahrain
  • Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Qatar
  • United Arab Emirates
All visitors to Saudi Arabia must hold a passport valid for 6 months.

Any citizen from or individual with a passport holding the stamp of Israel will be refused both admission and transit in Saudi Arabia.

Health Care

In Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Health (MOH) is the main government agency responsible with providing preventative, curative and rehabilitative health care. This includes administrating almost 2000 health care centres and around 220 hospitals. It also helps to supervise the activities of the private health sector and regulate all activities involved. This works to provide free health care for the entire population.

For specific enrolled security and armed forces, the Ministry of Defense and Aviation (MODA), the Ministry of Interior (MOI) and the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG) provides a variety of health care services. The Ministry of Education also provides primary health care to students while the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs offers orphans custodial homes as well as institutions for the mentally differently-abled.

The medical universities, university hospitals and capital hospitals are revered as some of the best in the world, with the King Khalid Eye Specialist Hospital doubling as a regional research centre in ophthalmology.

Transportation

Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure has developed rapidly in the last few decades due to the need to transport petroleum and the quickly-developing industries within the country. The country’s roads act as one of the country’s primary transportation networks and span over 221 thousand kilometres with around 47 thousand kilometres being paved. The highways are noted as some of the longest and largest in the world with the Jeddah-Taif-Al Hada Highway being reputed as the ‘motoring nirvana’ by many auto enthusiasts. To boot, Saudi Arabia’s petrol prices are some of the lowest in the world at around $0.48 (£0.30) per gallon.

The country’s sea transportation network is similarly prominent with much of Saudi Arabia’s population concentrated along the coast, ports primarily act to transport petroleum and other related chemicals and prominent ports include Dammam, Ras Tanura and Khobar on the Persian Gulf as well as Jeddah, Al Lith and Rabigh on the Red Sea.

Air transportation is vibrant in the country with over 200 airports in the country, 71 of these have paved runways and 32 of them span over 3,000 metres. The country also has access to 9 heliports.

Rail transport has also been growing in the country and Saudi Railways Organization (SRO) works to regulate rail development and implementation across the country. Active lines at the moment only connect Riyadh and Damman, but many other projects are underway and are expected to be completed in the coming few years. These include the Land Bridge which will connect Jeddah with Dammam, the Haramain High Speed Railway which will connect Makkah, Jeddash and Madinah, Riyadh Metro, Jeddah Metro, Makkah Metro and plans for an extended network which will connect Jeddah’s red sea port to the borders of Jordan, Yemen and even possibly into Egypt.

Embassies

Embassies in Saudi Arabia include:

Afghani Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Afghanistan in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
P.O.Box 93337, Riyadh 11673 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(00) (966) (1) 4803459   
FAX
(00) (966) (1) 4803451
EMAIL
afgembriyad@hotmail.com
DETAILS
Sayed Ahmad Umerkhil - Ambassador
 
Afghanistan
Afghani Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Afghanistan in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 6349, Tariq Al-Madina Kilo No. 3, Jeddah 21442, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
+96-62-663-3346, +96-62-663-3346         
FAX
+96-62-6631-578
EMAIL
khalil_e@hotmail.com
DETAILS
Consul General: Mr.Khalil ur Rahman Henani
 
Albania
Albanian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Albanian Embassy in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter Al Fazari Plaza, Unit No. G16, P.O. Box 94 004, Riyadh 11693 , Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) 1 281 6534         
FAX
(+966) 1 281 6535
WEBSITE
http://www.ambasadat.gov.al/saudi-arabia/en/   
EMAIL
embassy.riyadh@mfa.gov.al
OFFICE HOURS
Monday to Friday 09:00 - 17:00
DETAILS
Ambassador: Mr. Admirim Banaj
 
Albania
Albanian Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Albanian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 5604, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) (12) 660 802
EMAIL
-
DETAILS
Sheik Abdulaziz Muhamad Al Nowaiser, Consul
 
Algeria
Algerian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Algeria in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quartier, P.O. Box 94388, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) 11 488 7171       
FAX
(+966) 11 482 1703
WEBSITE
http://algerianembassy-saudi.com/        
EMAIL
mail@algerianembassy-saudi.com
DETAILS
Mr Abdul Wahab Derbal, Ambassador
 
Algeria
Algerian Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Algerian Consulate General in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 8132, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) (12) 698 5034, (+966) (12) 698 5035         
FAX
(+966) (12) 698 5038
WEBSITE
http://www.consalg-jeddah.org  
EMAIL
-
 
Argentina
Argentinian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Argentina in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Villa 4, Habib Al Handali Road -Olaya District, Riyadh , Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(00966 -11) 4652600, (00966 -11) 4656064, (00966 -11) 4659985, (00966 -11) 2010911       
FAX
(00966 -11) 4653057
WEBSITE
http://earab.cancilleria.gov.ar    
EMAIL
earab@cancilleria.gob.ar
OFFICE HOURS
Sunday to Thursday 09:00 - 15:30
DETAILS
JAIME SERGIO CERDA - Ambassador
 
Australia
Australian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Australian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Abdullah bin Hozafa Al-Sahmi Avenue, Diplomatic Quarter, PO Box 94400, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
+966 11 250 0900         
FAX
+966 11 250 0902
WEBSITE
http://www.saudiarabia.embassy.gov.au/ryad/home.html
EMAIL
-
OFFICE HOURS
Sunday to Thursday 07:45 - 15:45
DETAILS
Mr Neil Hawkins - Ambassador
 
Austria
Austrian Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Austrian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Alquds Street 3rd Building East of Intercontinental Hotel , Bezirk Al-Hamra , Jeddah 21 462, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) (2) 669 3322       
FAX
(+966) (2) 669 6499
EMAIL
-
OFFICE HOURS
09:00 - 14:00
DETAILS
Saleh Ali Abdulrahman Al-Turki - Consul
 
Austria
Austrian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Austria in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter Riyadh , P.O.Box 94373 , Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) (1) 480 12 17, (+966) (1) 480 65 98           
FAX
(+966) (1) 480 15 26
WEBSITE
http://www.bmeia.gv.at/botschaft/riyadh.html     
EMAIL
riyadh-ob@bmeia.gv.at
OFFICE HOURS
09:00 - 12:00
DETAILS
Dr Johannes Wimmer - Ambassador
 
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijani Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ar-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Al Worood Quarter, Amir Faisal bin Saud bin Abdulrahman str. 59, Al Aruba road, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+96611) 419 23 82       
FAX
(+96611) 419 22 60
WEBSITE
http://www.azembassy.org.sa   
EMAIL
riyadh@mission.mfa.gov.az
DETAILS
H.E. Mr. RASIM SH. RZAYEV - Ambassador
 
Bahrain
Bahraini Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Bahraini Consulate General in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 55549, Jeddah 21544, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) 2 607 6680         
FAX
(+966) 2 607 7370
WEBSITE
http://www.mofa.gov.bh/jeddah/Home.aspx      
EMAIL
jeddah.mission@mofa.gov.bh
DETAILS
Hamad Ali Al Bannkhalil - Consul General
 
Bahrain
Bahraini Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Bahraini Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter, next to Saudi Airlines offices, P. O. Box 94371, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) (1) 4880044        
FAX
(+966) (1) 4880208
WEBSITE
http://www.mofa.gov.bh/riyadh/Home.aspx       
EMAIL
riyadh.mission@mofa.gov.bh
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday to Wednesday 08:00 - 14:00
DETAILS
Hmood bin Abdullah bin Hamad Al Khalifa - Ambassador
 
Bangladesh
Bangladeshi Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Bangladeshi Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Al-Warud Quarter, House No. 50, North of Aruba Street, P.O. Box 94395, Sulaimania, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) 1-419 5300         
FAX
(+966) 1-419 3555
WEBSITE
http://www.bangladeshembassy.org.sa 
EMAIL
info@bangladeshembassy.org.sa; mission.riyadh@mofa.gov.bd
 
Bangladesh
Bangladeshi Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Bangladeshi Consulate General in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 31085, Jeddah 21497, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) 2-687 8465
WEBSITE
http://www.bcgjeddah.com       
EMAIL
cg@bcgjeddah.com
DETAILS
Md. Nazmul Islam - Consul General
 
Belgium
Belgian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Belgium in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic quarter Main Road 2 Lot n° A2 , P.O. Box 94396 , 11693 Riyadh , Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
+966 11 488 28 88        
FAX
+966 11 488 20 33
WEBSITE
http://countries.diplomatie.belgium.be/en/saudi_arabia/  
EMAIL
Riyadh@diplobel.fed.be
OFFICE HOURS
Sunday to Thursday 08:00 - 15:00
DETAILS
Geert CRIEL - Ambassador
 
Belgium
Belgian Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate of Belgium in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
PO Box 5338 , 21422 Jeddah , Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
+966 2 627 86 76          
FAX
+966 2 627 87 87
EMAIL
hassan.alkabbani@ikkgroup.com
DETAILS
Hassan I. ALKABBANI - Honorary Consul
 
Benin
Beninese Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Benin in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Rabea Bint Nder Street e cete de la Mosquee Al-Naeem District , P.O. Box 55285 , Jeddah 21534, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) 2-654 8148         
FAX
(+966) 2-658 2824
EMAIL
consulatbeninjeddah@yahoo.fr
OFFICE HOURS
09:00 - 15:00
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Al- Woroud Quarter, Ghazi Bin Qis street 10, P.O.Box 94301, 11693 Ryadh, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
+ (966 11) 456 7 914, + (966 11) 450 7 149         
FAX
+ (966 11) 45 44 360
EMAIL
baembsaruh@awalnet.net.sa
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday to Wednesday 09:00 - 17:00
DETAILS
H. E. Mr. Haris Hrle Ambassador
 
Brazil
Brazilian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Brazil in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter tIbin Zaher Street, P.O. Box 94348 , Riyadh 11693 , Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) 1 488-0018 / 25 / 54        
FAX
(+966) 1 488-1073
WEBSITE
http://riade.itamaraty.gov.br      
EMAIL
arabras@shabakah.net.sa
DETAILS
Mr Sergio Luiz Canaes - Ambassador
 
Brazil
Brazilian Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate of Brazil in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
P. O. Box 15474 , Jeddah 21 444, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) 2 667-0653
EMAIL
brazil@tri.net.sa
 
Brunei
Bruneian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Brunei Darussalam in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Al-Warood Area No. 29, Al Fujairah Street , P. O. Box 94314 , Riyadh 11693, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(966) 11 456 0814 / 264 5713 / 2054910 / 2054911 / 2054913       
FAX
(966) 11 456 1594
EMAIL
riyadh.arabsaudi@mfa.gov.bn
DETAILS
His Excellency Dato Paduka Haji Abdul Mokti bin Haji Mohd Daud - Ambassador
 
Brunei
Bruneian Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Brunei Darussalam in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Al-Hawj Street Al-Rehab District/2, P. O. Box 15514 , Jeddah 21454 , Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(966) 12 672 4343 / 672 5553     
FAX
(966) 12 670 1744 / 675 0993
EMAIL
jeddah.arabsaudi@mfa.gov.bn
DETAILS
Haji Sulaini bin Haji Said - Consul General
 
Burkina Faso
Burkinabe Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Burkina Faso in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
District Suleimania, South El Panda Oroubou (Orouba), 10th Street El Jouf Driveway Intersection Abu-Saleh , BP 94330 , Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(00 9661) 465 22 44      
FAX
00 9661 465 33 97
EMAIL
Burkinafaso.ksa@arab.net.sa
DETAILS
SEM Ountana MANSA - Ambassador
 
Burkina Faso
Burkinabe Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Burkina Faso in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Al Azizia Al Minshar Street Near Noor Mosque Villa No5, P.O.Box 8023 , Jeddah 21421 , Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) 2 674 45 47        
FAX
(+966) 2 672 58 95
EMAIL
-
DETAILS
Mr Adama Compaore - Consul General
 
Cameroon
Cameroonian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Cameroon in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Quartier Diplomatique Opposite Bahrain embassy , P.O. Box 94 336 , RIyadh 11693 , Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) (1) 488 0022       
FAX
(+966) (1) 488 1463
WEBSITE
http://ambacamriyad.org.sa      
EMAIL
ambacam@shabakah.net.sa
DETAILS
Mr Iya Tidjani - Ambassador
 
Cameroon
Cameroonian Consulate in Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Cameroon in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Bab Ajyad Street Alnuzla District, P.O. Box 15517 , Jeddah 21545 , Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966) 2-680 4541         
FAX
(+966) 2-687 6320
WEBSITE
http://Mr Issa Oumarou - Consul General
EMAIL
-
OFFICE HOURS
09:00 - 15:00
 
Canada
Canadian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Canada in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(011 966 1)488 2288      
FAX
(011 966 1) 488 1997
WEBSITE
http://www.saudiarabia.gc.ca    
EMAIL
ryadh@international.gc.ca
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday to Wednesday 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.
 
Canada
Canadian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate of Canada in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
11th Floor, Ali Reza Tower, Madina Road, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
966 (2) 653-0597, 653-0434        
FAX
966 (2) 653-0538
WEBSITE
http://www.saudiarabia.gc.ca    
EMAIL
canada.consulate.jeddah@nazergroup.com
 
China
Chinese Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Chinese Consulate General in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Al-Khaledeyyan District 2, Abdullah Aba Al-Khail St., Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
00966-2-6828254
00966-2-6062076          
FAX
00966-2-6620388
WEBSITE
http://jeddah.china-consulate.org          
EMAIL
chinaconsul_jd_sa@mfa.gov.cn
 
China
Chinese Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Chinese Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Circle No. 5 Diplomatic Quarter, P.O. Box 75231
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(009661)-4832126
(009661)-2812083
(009661)-4832105
(009661)-4832210         
FAX
(009661)-2812070
WEBSITE
http://www.chinaembassy.org.sa/eng/   
EMAIL
chinaemb_sa@mfa.gov.cn
OFFICE HOURS
Working Hours: 8:30 14:30 (Days off: Thursday & Friday)
 
Comoros
Comoran Embassy in Djedah, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the Comoros in Djedah, Saudi Arabia
Djedah, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Djedah 
PHONE
(966 1) 293 46 97          
FAX
(966 1) 293 47 97
 
Cyprus
Cypriot Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate of the Republic of Cyprus in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
P.O.Box 15,, Jeddah 21411 , Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(009662) 6603996, 6603671, 6652322 (Res.)       
FAX
(009662) 6603682, 6645365 (Res.)
EMAIL
mohammed@alfadlgroup.com
OFFICE HOURS
09:00 - 14:00, 17:00 - 20:00
 
Czech Republic
Czech Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the Czech Republic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Al Nuzha District , Saad Bin Gharir St. , Riyadh 11693, Postal AddressP.O.B. 94305 Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966 1 4503617 or 4503618,      
FAX
+966 1 5409879
WEBSITE
http://www.mzv.cz/riyadh          
EMAIL
riyadh@embassy.mzv.cz
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday - Wendesday: 07.45 - 16.15 Saturday, Monday and Wendesday: 09.00 - 12.00
 
 Czech Republic
Czech Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate of the Czech Republic in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Enany Headquarters Building, Al Malek Road, Jeddah, P.O.Box 52225, 21563
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
00966/2/6064867
00966/2/6066000          
FAX
00966/2/6064869
00966/2/6066060
EMAIL
jeddah@honorary.mzv.cz
 
Denmark
Danish Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Royal Danish Embassy in Saudi Arabia
Main Road One, Diplomatic Quarter, P.O. Box 94398, 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+ 966 1 488 0101          
FAX
+ 966 1 488 1366
WEBSITE
http://www.dkembassyriyadh.dk
EMAIL
ruhamb@um.dk
OFFICE HOURS
Lørdag til Onsdag - 8:00 til 16:00
 
Denmark
Danish Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Royal Danish Consulate General in Saudi Arabia
E.A. Juffali Bros., P.O. Box 297, 21411
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
+966 (2) 667 2222         
FAX
+966 (2) 660 7268
EMAIL
dkcons@eajb.com.sa
 
Egypt
Egyptian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Egypt in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Abd Allah Ben Hozafa Elsahmi St, Elsefarat dist. RIYADH, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(009661) 4831469 - 4831305 - 4807304   
FAX
(009661) 4810406
WEBSITE
http://www.mfa.gov.eg/Missions/ksa/riyadh/embassy/en-GB      
EMAIL
Riyadh_emb@mfa.gov.eg
 
Egypt
Egyptian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Egypt in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Mohamed Iqbal St., Alrawda
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(009662 ) 6605205 - 6604822     
FAX
(009662) 6652487
WEBSITE
http://www.mfa.gov.eg/Missions/ksa/jeddah/Consulate/en-GB/default.htm
 
Egypt
Egyptian Consulate in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Egypt in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter-Riyadh
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(009661)4831305 - 4831469       
FAX
(009661)4810406
WEBSITE
http://www.mfa.gov.eg/Missions/ksa/riyadh/consulate/en-GB/
 
Eritrea
Eritrean Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the State of Eritrea in Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 94002
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966-1-480-1726           
FAX
+966-1-482-7537
 
Ethiopia
Ethiopian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Ethiopia in Saudi Arabia
Airabwah Q. Al-Hanifah St. 32 / 30, P.O.Box: 94341, 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 1 4824055 / 6     
FAX
(+966) 1 4823821
EMAIL
ethiopian@naseej.com.sa
OFFICE HOURS
Sat-Wed: 8:00 a.m. - 3:00p.m.
 
Finland
Finnish Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Finland in Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter, Postal Address:, P.O.Box 94363, 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966-1-488 1515, 488 2114        
FAX
+966-1-488 2520
WEBSITE
http://www.finland.org.sa          
EMAIL
sanomat.ria@formin.fi
OFFICE HOURS
Customer Service: Sat-Wed 8.00-15.45
 
Finland
Finnish Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate General of Finland in Jedda, Saudi Arabia
Honorary Consulate General of Finland, P.O. Box 54, 21411
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(966-2) 643 8235           
FAX
(966-2) 643 8983 / 647 5856
 
France
French Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of France in Saudi Arabia
Quartier diplomatique, PO Box 94367, 11693C
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) (1) 488 12 55      
FAX
(+966) (1) 488 28 82 / 480 19 95
WEBSITE
http://www.ambafrance-sa.org/  
EMAIL
diplomatie@ambafrance.org.sa
DETAILS
Ambassadeur : M. Bertrand BESANCENOT
 
France
French Consulate in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate of France in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Quartier diplomatique, PO Box 94367, Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
[966] (1) 488 12 55        
FAX
[966] (1) 488 26 90
WEBSITE
http://www.ambafrance.org.sa/  
EMAIL
csl-riyad@ambafrance.org.sa
 
France
French Consulate in Djeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of France in Djeddah, Saudi Arabia
Quartier Al Hamra, rue Al Shouara, PO Box 145 - Djeddah 21411
 
CITY
Djeddah           
PHONE
[966] (2) 668 15 50        
FAX
[966] (2) 668 27 17
WEBSITE
http://www.consulfrance-djeddah.org/    
EMAIL
contact@consulfrance-djeddah.org
 
Gambia
Gambian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
The Gambia Embassy in Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 94322, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
465 9996
WEBSITE
http://-
OFFICE HOURS
--
 
Germany
German Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
German Embassy in Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 94001, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
966 1 488 07 00
FAX
966 1 488 06 60
WEBSITE
http://www.germanembassy.org.sa        
EMAIL
info@riad.diplo.de
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday till Wednesday: 8.30am till 12.30pm
 
Greece
Greek Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Greece in Riyadh
P.O. Box 94375 , Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(009661) 4801974-5       
FAX
(009661) 4801969
WEBSITE
http://www.mfa.gr/riyadh           
EMAIL
grcon.ria@mfa.gr
 
Greece
Greek Consulate in Jedda, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Greece in Jedda
Nour El Hayat, Plot 187, Al Andalus District, Jeddah
 
CITY
Jedda  
PHONE
(009662) 6674064, 6674088       
FAX
(009662)6656228
EMAIL
grgencon.jed@mfa.gr
 
Greenland
Greenlandic Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Royal Danish Embassy in Saudi Arabia
Main Road One, Diplomatic Quarter, P.O. Box 94398, Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966 1 488 0101           
FAX
+966 1 488 1366
WEBSITE
http://www.dkembassyriyadh.dk
EMAIL
ruhamb@um.dk
DETAILS
The Faroe Islands and Greenland are part of the Kingdom of Denmark. As a main principle, the Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Kingdom of Denmark are the responsibility of the Danish government.
 
Greenland
Greenlandic Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Royal Danish Consulate General in Saudi Arabia
E.A. Juffali Bros., P.O. Box 297, Jeddah 21411
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
+966 (2) 667 2222         
FAX
+966 (2) 660 7268
EMAIL
dkcons@eajb.com.sa
DETAILS
The Faroe Islands and Greenland are part of the Kingdom of Denmark. As a main principle, the Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Kingdom of Denmark are the responsibility of the Danish government.
 
Hungary
Hungarian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Hungary in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Al Waha District, Ahmed Al-Touncy Str. 23, 11693, Riyadh P.O.B. 94014, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
00966-1 454-6707, 456-8644      
FAX
00966-1-4560834
WEBSITE
http://www.mfa.gov.hu/emb/riyadh        
EMAIL
mission.ryd@kum.hu
 
India
Indian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
General Consulate of India in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Bldg. of M/s Bughshan & Bros, Madinah Road, Sharafiah Distt,, PO Box No. 952,, 21421
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
00-966-2-6520104, 6520112       
FAX
00-966-2-6533964
WEBSITE
http://www.cgijeddah.com/        
EMAIL
admin@cgijeddah.com
 
India
Indian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of India in Saudi Arabia
B-1 Diplomatic Quarter, PB No. 94387, Riyadh - 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
966-1-4884144. 4884691
FAX
966-1-4884750
WEBSITE
http://www.indianembassy.org.sa/         
EMAIL
hoc@indianembassy.org.sa
 
Indonesia
Indonesian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Indonesia in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Riyadh Diplomatic Quarter, P.O. Box 94343 - Riyadh, 11693 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
01-4882800      
FAX
01 - 4882966
WEBSITE
http://www.indonesia-riyadh.org
EMAIL
contact@indonesia-riyadh.org.sa
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday - Wednesday : 08:00 - 16:00 Lunch Break: 12:00 - 13:00 Holiday: Thursday & Friday
 
Indonesia
Indonesian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Indonesia in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Al-Mualifin Street, Al-Rehab Dist. / 5 , P.O. Box. 10 , Jeddah 21411 , Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(966-2) 6711271
FAX
(966-2) 6730205
WEBSITE
http://www.kjrijeddah.org.sa      
EMAIL
komjed@awalnet.net.sa
 
Ireland
Irish Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Ireland in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter, PO Box 94349, 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966 1 488 2300           
FAX
+ 966 1 488 0927
WEBSITE
http://www.embassyofireland.org.sa      
EMAIL
riyadhembassy@dfa.ie
OFFICE HOURS
Opening hours: 0830-1530, Saturday to Wednesday
DETAILS
Ambassador: His Excellency Niall Holohan
 
Italy
Italian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Italian Embassy in Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter P.O.Box 94389 - 11693, Riyadh
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
0096614834877
FAX
0096614881951
WEBSITE
http://www.ambriad.esteri.it       
EMAIL
ambasciata.riad@esteri.it
 
Italy
Italian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
General Consulate of Italy in Jeddah
Mohamed Abdul Wahab Street Sharafia District - P.O BOX 82
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
0096626421451
WEBSITE
http://www.consgedda.esteri.it  
EMAIL
consolato.gedda@esteri.it
 
Jordan
Jordanian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate of Jordan in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Jeddah, Al Hamra District, Prince Mohammad Bin Abd el Aziz Street, 009662
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
6607630 - 6607633        
FAX
6607674
OFFICE HOURS
Monday - Wednesday:8:30-3:00
Saturday - Sunday: 8:30-3:00
 
Jordan
Jordanian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Jordan in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter, PO Box 94316, Postal Code: 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966-1-4880071/+966-1-4880039/+966-1-4880051/          
FAX
+966-1-4880072
WEBSITE
http://www.jordanembassyriyadh.gov.jo
EMAIL
jordan.embassy@nesma.net.sa
OFFICE HOURS
Monday - Wednesday:8:00-3:00 Saturday - Sunday: 8:00-3:00
 
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstani Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Riyadh
P.O. Box 94012, 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+9661-455-14-88 or 470-18-39    
FAX
+9661-454-7304
WEBSITE
http://www.kazembgulf.net        
EMAIL
office@kazembgulf.net
OFFICE HOURS
9:00 hrs. to 14:00 hrs. Day Off: Thursday & Friday
DETAILS
Ambassador Kairat LAMA-SHARIF
 
Kenya
Kenyan Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the Republic of Kenya in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarters, P.O. Box 94358, Code 11693, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+ 996 1 4881238/4882484          
FAX
+ 966 1 4882629
EMAIL
Kenya@shaheer.net.sa
 
Kuwait
Kuwaiti Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate of Kuwait in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
P.O.Box 5374, Jeddah 21422
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966-2) 6601836, 6604898        
FAX
(+966-2) 6650515
 
Kuwait
Kuwaiti Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Kuwaiti Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
P.O.Box 94304, Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966-1) 4883500, 4883401        
FAX
(+966-1) 4883682
 
Libya
Libyan Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Libya in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Box 94365, Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
4544511           
FAX
4567513
 
Madagascar
Malagasy Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate of Madagascar
Pakhashab Building, King Abdelaziz street , Jeddah
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
23054 or 23051 or 23066
 
Malaysia
Malaysian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Malaysia in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter, P.O. Box 94335, Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
00966-14887100           
FAX
00966-14824177
WEBSITE
http://www.kln.gov.my/perwakilan/riyadh
EMAIL
malriyadh@kln.gov.my
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday - Wednesday 8.00 am - 3.00 pm
 
Malaysia
Malaysian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Malaysia in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Lot 241, Al-Mualiffin Street,, Al Rehab District,, P.O Box 593, Jeddah 21421., Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
00966 2 6727740 or 00966 2 6728019     
FAX
00966 2 6760877
WEBSITE
http://www.kln.gov.my/perwakilan/jeddah           
EMAIL
maljeddah@kln.gov.my
OFFICE HOURS
Work day: Saturday - Wednesday 8.00 am - 3.00 pm Holiday :    Thursday & Friday
 
Mali
Malian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Mali
P.O.Box 94331, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966-1) 4658900, 4659495        
FAX
(+966-1) 4648714, 4657567
 
Mali
Malian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate of Mali
P.O.Box 5379, Jeddah 21422, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966-2) 6514940          
FAX
(+966-2) 6514940, 6574567
EMAIL
consulat@sbm.net.sa
 
Malta
Maltese Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Malta in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
14, Abbass Al Rasheed Street, Suleimaniya, PO Box 94361, Riyadh 11693, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
00966 (01) 463 2345, 461 5315  
FAX
00966 (01) 463 3993
EMAIL
maltaemb@shabakah.net.sa
 
Malta
Maltese Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate of Malta in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
PO Box 54040, Jeddah 21514
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
00966 (2) 694 0052       
FAX
00966 (2) 694 0052
EMAIL
maltaconsul.jeddah@gov.mt
 
Mexico
Mexican Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Mexico in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
P.O Box 94391, Riyadh Arabia Saudita, 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(9661) 480-8822
FAX
(9661) 480-8833
 
Morocco
Moroccan Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Morocco in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
21 Jabel El Arab Street 38, Mushrifah Dist / 1, P.O. Box 498, Jeddah
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
00 (966) 26 69 52 34, 00 (966) 26 69 52 38          
FAX
00 (966) 26 61 36 90
 
Morocco
Moroccan Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Morocco in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
DIPLOMATIC QUARTIER , BP 94392, CODE 11693 RIYADH
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
00 (966) 14 81 18 58, 00 (966) 14 82 63 82          
FAX
00 (966)14 82 70 16
EMAIL
moembassy96@hotmail.com
 
Nepal
Nepalese Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Nepal
P.O.Box 94384, Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966-1) 4024758, 4036433        
FAX
(+966-1) 4036488
 
Nepal
Nepalese Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Nepal in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Khazan Street, AI Morabbah , (Near Prince Musaed Palace)
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
00966-1-402-4758 / 00966-1-403-9482     
FAX
00966-1-464-0690
WEBSITE
http://www.rneska.org/  
EMAIL
neksa@zajil.net
 
Nepal
Nepalese Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Nepal in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Khazan Street, AI Morabbah , (Near Prince Musaed Palace)
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
00966-1-402-4758 / 00966-1-403-9482     
FAX
00966-1-464-0690
WEBSITE
http://www.rneska.org/  
EMAIL
neksa@zajil.net
 
Netherlands
Dutch Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Royal Netherlands Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 94307, 11693 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(966) 01-4880011          
FAX
(966) 01-4880544
OFFICE HOURS
09.00-12.00 hrs
 
New Zealand
Kiwi Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of New Zealand in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter PO Box 94 397, 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+ 966 1) 488 7988        
FAX
(+ 966 1) 488 7912 or +(966 1) 488 7911
EMAIL
nzembassy@awalnet.net.sa, info@nzembassy.org.sa
OFFICE HOURS
Sat - Wed 0800 - 1600 hrs
DETAILS
Ambassador:Mr Jim Howell
 
New Zealand
Kiwi Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
New Zealand Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
c/o Associated Agencies Al Madin, undus Building (Behind Caravan Shopping Centre), Al Madina Street , PO Box 419 , Jeddah 21411
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966) 2 651 2109         
FAX
(+966) 2 651 6504
OFFICE HOURS
Sat - Wed 0900 - 1300, 1600 - 1900 hrs Thu 0900 - 1300 hrs
DETAILS
Consul: Sheikh A Raouf Abu Zinadah
 
Niger
Nigerien Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Niger in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Al Worud Quarter, Shikh Abdullah al-anqary St, PO Box 94334, 11693, Riyadh, KSA
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966-1) 4605931, 4605931        
FAX
(+966-1) 4605931
 
Norway
Norwegian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Royal Norwegian Embassy in Riyadh
P.O.Box 94380,, 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966-1-488-1904           
FAX
+966-1-488-0854 or 483-3168
WEBSITE
http://www.al-norwige.org.sa     
EMAIL
emb.riyadh@mfa.no
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday - Wednesday 08.30-15.00
DETAILS
H.E. The Ambassador: Carl Schiotz Wibye
 
Norway
Norwegian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Royal Norwegian Consulate General in Jeddah
P.O.Box 18600, , 21425
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
+966-2-661-1222 - ext. 300 or operator ext. 0     
FAX
+966-2-665-5611
WEBSITE
http://www.al-norwige.org.sa     
EMAIL
trealjr2000@yahoo.com
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday - Wednesday 09.00-15.00 hours
DETAILS
Consul General: Mr. Sami Attar When calling the Consulate General, you will first connect automatically to an answering machine. If you are not connected to the answering machine within three or four dial tones you must hang up and call again.
 
Oman
Omani Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the Sultanate of Oman in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Al Raed Quarter, Opposite of King Saud University, P.O. Box 94381, Al- Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(009661) 4832 120 (Three Lines) 
FAX
4823 738 or 4823 694 (Consulate Dept.)
OFFICE HOURS
08:00 - 14:00
 
Pakistan
Pakistani Embassy in Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Plot No. 21, Diplomatic Quarters, P.O. Box 94007, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
PHONE
(+966-11) 4884111, (+966-11) 4884272   
FAX
(+966-11) 4887953
WEBSITE
http://http://www.mofa.gov.pk/  
EMAIL
parep_riyadh@yahoo.com; pakembassy@saudionline.com.sa
 
Pakistan
Pakistani Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Pakistan in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
N 17 E 7 Sector, Mushrefah, Ibrahim Al-Tassan Street 19, Building No. 58, P.O. Box No. 182, Jeddah-21411
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966-2) -6692371, 669046, 6691047      
FAX
(+966-2) 6693309
WEBSITE
http://www.pakconsulatejeddah.com     
EMAIL
info@pakconsulatejeddah.com, parepconsulatejed@fast.net.sa, parep.jeddah@mofa.gov.pk, welfarew@pakco
 
Palestine
Palestinian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Palestine Embassy in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
PO Box 3589, , 11481
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
966-1-4880738/9           
FAX
966-1-6936407/4880721
EMAIL
saemb@mofa-gov.ps
 
Philippines
Filipino Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Philippine Consulate General in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Al- Sayeddah Kaddija St., Al Faisaliyah District 1, P.O. Box 4794, Jeddah 21412
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(9662) 6600-348; 6670-925 or 6600-354  
FAX
00-9662-663-0338
EMAIL
jeddahpc@philcongen-jeddah.com / jeddahpcg_boyc@yahoo.com jeddah_pc@dfa.gov.ph
 
Philippines
Filipino Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the Philippines in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
D3 Collector Road, Diplomatic Quarter, 11693 P.O. Box 94366
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+9661) 482-3615, 482-0507, 482-1801, 482-3816, 482-4354,488-0835, 482-0474, 480-3662
FAX
(+9661) 488-3945 / 482-1856
WEBSITE
http://www.philembassy-riyadh.org/       
EMAIL
filembry@sbm.net.sa
 
Poland
Polish Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Poland in Saudi Arabia
20 Abdullah Bin Jafar St Al-Worood Area , PO Box 94016 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966.1.454.9274           
FAX
+966.1.454.9210
WEBSITE
http://www.rijad.polemb.net/      
EMAIL
rijad.amb.sekretariat@msz.gov.pl
 
Poland
Polish Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate of the Republic of Poland in Jeddah
King Abdulaziz Street, P.O. Box 439,, Jeddah 21411 , -, -
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(00-966) 505-617-855     
FAX
(00-966-2) 648-47-05
WEBSITE
http://- 
EMAIL
attarcojed@gmail.com
 
Qatar
Qatari Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Qatar in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Alwafa Al-Bozjani Area, PO Box 94353, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966.1.482.5544           
FAX
+966.1.482.5694
EMAIL
riyadh@mofa.gov.qa
 
Qatar
Qatari Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate of the State of Qatar
P.O.Box 313, Jeddah
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966-2) 6652538          
FAX
(+966-2) 6551297
EMAIL
jeddah@mofa.gov.qa
 
Romania
Romanian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Romania in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Al Protocal Street, Villa no.8, King Fahad District, P.O. Box 94319, Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(00) (966) (1) 4566205   
FAX
(00) (966) (1) 4569985
EMAIL
embromriyadh@nesma.net.sa
 
Russia
Russian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Russia in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia, P.O.Box 94308 Riyadh 11693 Russian Embassy, Al-Wasiti str., Rahmania, bld. 13
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966 1 481-1875, 481-1801        
FAX
+966 1 481-1890
EMAIL
springmail@arab.net.sa
 
Senegal
Senegalese Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Senegal Embassy , Saudi Arabia
riyadh - King fahad Area, PO Box 94352, 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966-1-4880146/+966-1-4880157/+966-1-4542144/+966-1-2647769           
FAX
+966-1-4883804/+966-1-2647675
 
Senegal
Senegalese Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of Senegal in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Quartier Diplomatique de Riyadh, Riyadh, Quartier Diplomatique de Riyadh, PO Box 94532, Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
+9661 488 0146/488 0157          
FAX
+9661 488 3804
 
Seychelles
Seychelles Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate of Syechelles in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
P.O.Box 1229, 21431
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966-2) 6065555          
FAX
(+966-2) 6061739
EMAIL
info@alhamranigroup.com
 
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leonean Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Sierra Leone in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
25 Al- BadaI St. Olaiya , P. O. Box 94329 , Riyadh 11693 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 1 464 3982         
FAX
(+966) 1 464 3662
EMAIL
slembrdh@zajil.net
 
Singapore
Singaporean Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Villa No 5, Mohammed Tawfic Al Abbasi St, Off Hera'a St, Al Naeem Dist
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
966 (2) 6073980/6073981           
FAX
966 (2) 6074280
WEBSITE
http://www.mfa.gov.sg/jeddah/ 
EMAIL
info@singconsjed.com
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday - Wednesday: 8.00 am - 3.30 pm Closed on Thursdays, Fridays, Saudi Arabia's public holidays and Singapore's National Day (9 August)
 
Singapore
Singaporean Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Singapore Embassy in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter, P.O. Box 94378, Riyadh 11693, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
966 (1)480-3855
FAX
001-966-(1) 483-0632
WEBSITE
http://www.mfa.gov.sg/riyadh   
EMAIL
singemb_ruh@sgmfa.gov.sg
OFFICE HOURS
Sat - Wed 8.00 am to 3.30 pm Thur & Fri - Closed
 
South Africa
South African Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of South Africa in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
King Khalid Road, Um Al-Hammam East, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, P.O.Box 94006 Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+ 966 1 442 9716/18     
FAX
+ 966 1 442 9708/12
EMAIL
riyadh.info@foreign.gov.za
 
South Africa
South African Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
South African Consulate-General in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Villa No. 73, Al-Khalidiya District, Aba Al-Khail Street, P O Box 12737, Jeddah 21483, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
+ 966 2 6060299, + 966 2 606 4714        
FAX
+ 966 2 6065984
EMAIL
info@southafrica.com.sa, saconsular@southafrica.com.sa
 
South Korea
Korean Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the Republic of Korea
P.O.Box 94399, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966-1) 4882211          
FAX
(+966-1) 4881317
 
Spain
Spanish Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Spanish Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 94347, Riyadh-11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 1 488 06 06        
FAX
(+966) 1 488 04 20
EMAIL
emb.riad.info@maec.es
DETAILS
Mr Pablo Bravo Lozano - Ambassador
 
Sri Lanka
Sri Lankan Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Sri Lankan Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
P.O.Box 94360, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 1 460 8232 / (+966) 1 460 6906    
FAX
(+966) 1 460 8846
EMAIL
mail@srilankaembassyriyadh.com
 
Sudan
Sudanese Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the Republic of the Sudan in Saudi Arabia
Abu al-Wafa Embassies Quarter , P.O. Box 94337 , Riyadh 11693 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 1 488 7979 or (+966) 1 488 7388 / 96       
FAX
(+966) 1 488 7729 / (+966) 1 482 9464
EMAIL
main@sudanembasyryd.org.sa / info@sudanembasyryd.org.sa
 
Sudan
Sudanese Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate of Sudan in Saudi Arabia
King Khaled Street - Althaaleba District , P.O. Box 480, Jeddah 21411 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966) 2 605 5888 or (+966) 2 647 6003  
FAX
(+966) 2 654 8826 or (+966) 2 647 1107
EMAIL
sdconjet@sbm.net.sd / sdconjed@sbm.net.sd
 
Sweden
Swedish Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Sweden in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Collector Road B, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966 (1) 488 31 00        
FAX
+966 (1) 488 06 04
EMAIL
ambassaden.riyadh@foreign.ministry.se
DETAILS
Mr Dag Juhlin-Dannfelt - Ambassador
 
Sweden
Swedish Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Honorary Consulate of Sweden, Jeddah
Cross section of Rawdah Street, Prince Sultaan Al-Sulaima Business Center Mezzanine Floor, P.O. Box 127383, Jeddah 21352 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966) (2) 606 9005       
FAX
(+966) (2) 606 9007
EMAIL
honoraryconsul@ghassanco.com
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday-Wednesday 09.00-15.00
DETAILS
Dr Ghassan Ahmed Abdullah Al-Sulaiman - Honorary Consul
 
Switzerland
Swiss Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Switzerland in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic quarter, P.O. Box 94311, Riyadh 11693 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 1 488 1291         
FAX
(+966) 1 488 0632
WEBSITE
http:// www.eda.admin.ch/riyadh
EMAIL
rya.vertretung@eda.admin.ch
OFFICE HOURS
Sunday-Thursday 08:00-11:00
DETAILS
Mr Peter Reinhardt - Ambassador
 
Syria
Syrian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of the Syrian Arab Republic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
P.O.Box 94323, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 1 482 3940 / 48 / 13 (+966) 1 488 7481     
FAX
(+966) 1 482 6196
EMAIL
syria2003@nesma.net.sa
OFFICE HOURS
Saturday to Wednesday: 08.30 to 14.30 Thursday: 10.00 to 13.00
 
Syria
Syrian Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of the Syrian Arab Republic in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Al-Andalus Street No. 57 , Mahmoud Nassif, P. O. Box 11703 , Jeddah 657, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966) 2 660 1953 (+966) 2 661 0211      
FAX
(+966) 2 660 3186
EMAIL
syrian.g.c@awalnet.net.sa
 
Taiwan
Taiwanese Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Representative Office of Taiwan in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(002-966-1) 488-1900     
FAX
(002-966-1) 488-1716
WEBSITE
http://www.roc-taiwan.org/SA    
EMAIL
sau@mofa.gov.tw
 
Taiwan
Taiwanese Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Representative Office of Taiwan in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
No. 41 Al-Abaqerah St. (19) Al-Ruwais District/7, Jeddah Saudi Arabia, P.O. BOX?1114 Jeddah 21431, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(966)126602264
FAX
(966)126657205
WEBSITE
http://www.roc-taiwan.org/SA/JED         
EMAIL
jed@mofa.gov.tw
OFFICE HOURS
Sunday~Thursday 08?00~16?00
 
Tanzania
Tanzanian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Tanzania in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 94320 Riyadh, 11693 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 1 454 2833 (+966) 1 205 1541      
FAX
(+966) 1 454 9660
EMAIL
info@tanzaniaembassy-sa.com, visa@tanzaniaembassy-sa.com
OFFICE HOURS
08.30-15.30
 
Thailand
Thai Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Thailand in Saudi Arabia
Royal Thai Embassy, Diplomatic Quarter, P.O. Box 94359, Riyadh 11693
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
966-11) 488-1174, 488-0797, (966-11) 488-0300, 488-1507
FAX
(966-11) 488-1179
WEBSITE
http://www.thaiembassy.org/riyadh        
EMAIL
thairuh@mfa.go.th
OFFICE HOURS
Office Hours : Saturday-Thursday 09.00-15.00 Visa and Consular section : 09.00-12.00
 
Thailand
Thai Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate of Thailand in Saudi Arabia
2 Safwan Ibn Wahab Street (92), Falestine Street, Behind Jeddah Dome, Sharafia Dist.3, P.O. Box 2224, Jeddah 21451
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
+966-2-6655317 / +966-2-2831078          
FAX
+966-2-6655318, 284-4074
WEBSITE
http://www.thaiembassy.org/jeddah       
EMAIL
jeddah@thaicongen.org.sa
OFFICE HOURS
Office Hours : 09.00 - 16.00 (Break: 12.30 – 13.30 hrs.) Visa Hours: 09.00 hrs. – 12.00 hrs.(Sunday - Thursday)
 
Tunisia
Tunisian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Tunisia in Saudi Arabia
Quartier Diplomatique P.O. Box 94-368 Riyadh 11693 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) (1) 488.79.00      
FAX
(+966) (1) 488.76.41
EMAIL
amb.tunisie.riyadh@saudi.net.sa / a_riyadh@digi.net.sa
 
Turkey
Turkish Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Turkey in Saudi Arabia
P.O.BOX: 94390, RIYADH, 11693 SAUDI ARABIA
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
00 966-1 482 01 01       
FAX
00 966-1 488 78 23
WEBSITE
http://http://riyadh.emb.mfa.gov.tr         
EMAIL
embassy.riyadh@mfa.gov.tr
 
Uganda
Ugandan Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Uganda in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
1 Hassan Bin Al-Numaman Street (West of Salahddin Hotel Al Worood Quarter) , P. O. Box 94344, Riyadh 11693 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
+966-1-454 4910           
FAX
+966-1-454 9264
EMAIL
ugariyadh@hotmail.com
 
Ukraine
Ukrainian Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Ukraine in Saudi Arabia
6 Hassan Al Badr St., Salah Al Din District, P.O.Box 94010, Riyadh 11693 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
00-966-11-450-85-36 / +966505220193    
FAX
00-966-11-450-85-34
WEBSITE
http://http://saudiarabia.mfa.gov.ua       
EMAIL
emb_sa@mfa.gov.ua
 
United Arab Emirates
Emirati Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of United Arab Emirates in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Riyadh Diplomatic Quarter, Abu Bakr Karkhi area, Street Amr bin Umayya
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
966114881227  
FAX
966114827504
WEBSITE
http://www.uae-embassy.ae/embassies/sa         
EMAIL
riyadh@mofa.gov.ae
 
United Arab Emirates
Emirati Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate General of the United Arab Emirates in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Osman Bin Affan. St Al Sharafia P.O. Box 5451, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966) 2 651 5436         
FAX
(+966) 2 651 3246
EMAIL
jeddah@mofa.gov.ae
 
United States
American Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
American Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter P. O. Box 94309 , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
966-11-4883800
FAX
966-11-4887360
WEBSITE
http://riyadh.usembassy.gov     
EMAIL
support-saudiarabia@ustraveldocs.com
OFFICE HOURS
Sunday - Thursday 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
 
United States
American Consulate in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
 
American Consulate in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 38955, Dhahran Airport 31942, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Dhahran           
PHONE
(966-3) 330-3200           
FAX
(966-3) 330-0464
WEBSITE
http://dhahran.usconsulate.gov 
EMAIL
dhahraniv@state.gov
 
United States
American Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
American Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
U.S. Consulate General, P.O. Box 149, Jeddah 21411
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(966-2) 667-0080           
FAX
(966-2) 669-3098
WEBSITE
http://jeddah.usconsulate.gov   
EMAIL
Jeddahacs@state.gov
 
Uruguay
Uruguayan Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Uruguay in Saudi Arabia
Cercon Buildings No.12, Second floor, Office 202 Olaya Main Street, Olaya District P.O. Box 94346 , Riyadh 11693 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 1 462 0739         
FAX
(+966) 1 462 0638
EMAIL
uruarabia@mrree.gub.uy
 
Uruguay
Uruguayan Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate of Uruguay in Saudi Arabia
Aishoara Street, House 68 P.O. Box 15606 , Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966) 2 663 3300         
FAX
(+966) 2 663 1313
EMAIL
law@law.com.sa
 
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistani Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Uzbekistan in Saudi Arabia
District King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud , P.O. Box 94008 , Riyadh 11693 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 1 263-52-23        
FAX
(+966) 1 263-51-05
EMAIL
-
 
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistani Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate of Uzbekistan in Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 50036, Jeddah 21523 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966) 1 263-51-05        
FAX
(+966) 1 263-51-05
EMAIL
-
 
Venezuela
Venezuelan Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Venezuela in Saudi Arabia
Quater Diplomatie Plaza Al-Kindi, Office 57 P.O. Box 94364, Riyadh 11693 Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) (1) 480 71 41 / 38 80       
FAX
(+966) (1) 480 09 01
EMAIL
embvenar@embvenar.org.sa
 
Yemen
Yemeni Embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
 
Embassy of Yemen in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diplomatic Quarter, Omar bin Omayah Althemiri Road, P.O. Box 94356, Riyadh 11693, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Riyadh 
PHONE
(+966) 11 488 1769 / 482 6750   
FAX
(+966) 11 448 1562
EMAIL
yemb-riyadh@mofa.gov.ye
 
Yemen
Yemeni Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
Consulate of Yemen in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Makkah Road, P.O. Box 2793, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 
CITY
Jeddah
PHONE
(+966) (12) 687 7977 / 3494       
FAX
(+966) (12) 689 4567

Phone Lines

Saudi Arabia’s telecommunications span vast networks and stretch country-wide, these include over 4.6 million main telephone lines, over 53.7 million mobile lines and over 100,000 digital radio trunking systems.

These use a variety of undersea cables as well as a microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Jordan, Qatar and Yemen, a coaxial cable connecting Saudi Arabia to Kuwait and Jordan. The country also uses 5 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat and 1 Inmarsat Satellite earth satellite earth stations.

Internet

There are 22 Internet Service Providers across the country which cater to around 13 million Internet users under the top level domain .sa. Prices vary based on the speed and you can get rates ranging from 0.128mb at 99 SAR ($26.40 or £16.80) to 200mb at 799 SAR ($213 or £135) monthly.

Communications

The country’s Televisions number over 5.1 million and these have access to around 117 Television broadcast stations. Meanwhile, Radios number over 6.25 million and include around 70-80 Radio broadcast stations in AM, FM and shortwave frequencies. 

Weather & Climate

Saudi Arabia’s climate is very similar across the country besides the Southwest which may see slightly cooler temperatures. Its patterns follow the desert climate and temperatures vary greatly throughout the year, rising as high as 53 degrees Centigrade (128 Fahrenheit) in the summer months of May to July, and dropping as low as -1 degree Centigrade (30 Fahrenheit) in the winter months of December to February. This said, average temperatures in the summer months are around 36 degrees Centigrade (97 Fahrenheit) and in the winter, average temperatures range around 14 degrees Centrigrade (58 degrees Fahrenheit).

Rainfall can additionally vary, with the country receiving around 8cm (3.2 inches) of precipitation a year. Most of this rain occurs during the winter months of December to February where up to 3cm (1.2 inches) of precipitation a month is possible. During the months between April and November, there is typically no rainfall whatsoever. 


Before children can be allowed to enter the country, their parent must work at least for 90 days. Teenage dependants must understand that there are serious repercussions for transporting alcohol and/or drugs into the country or engaging in drunken or unsober behaviour.

Pet-wise, only 2 pets are permitted per family unit, all dogs must be imported only as service, guard or hunting dogs and it’s important to note that the following breeds are banned:

  • Japanese Spitz
  • Japanese Akita / Akita Imu / Akita
  • Affenpinscher
  • Griffon Bruxellois / Brussels Griffon / Brabaneon / Belgian Griffon
  • Hovawart
  • Boxer
  • Bull Dog / English Bull Dog
  • Rottweiler
  • Stafford Bull Terrier
  • Dandie Dinmont Terrier
  • Lancashire Heeler
  • Swedish Valhunde / Swedish Cattle Dog / Vasgoispats
  • Mastiff / Old English Mastiff / Bull Mastiff / Neapolitan Mastiff
  • Newfoundland
  • Great Dane / Deutscher Dogge
  • Bergehni
  • Yorkie
  • Pomeranian
  • Chihuahua
All other dogs, cats and ferrets must meet the following requirements:
  • An ISO 11784/11785 compliant 15 digit pet microchip, or another microchip (but you will require your own microchip scanner in this case)
  • A Rabies vaccination no less than 30 days but no more than 12 months prior to entry into the country
  • A copy of the Rabies Certificate endorsed by the Saudi Arabian Embassy or Consulate in your own country as well as a USDA or CFIA accredited veterinarian
  • A Saudi Arabia Veterinary Certificate completed and endorsed by a USDA or CFIA accredited veterinarian, which also needs to be endorsed by the Saudi Arabian Embassy or Consulate in your own country
  • An import permit from the Ministry of Agriculture
  • A letter to the Director of Customs in Saudi Arabia
  • An application form for an entrance notification completed by the company you work for or a separate agent in Saudi Arabia
Turtles, Parrots and other exotic animals may require additional permits under the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITIES)

All Saudi Arabian citizens have full access to public education from a primary level through college. Public expenditure on education as a percentage of government expenditure is around 27.6% and the sector is managed by the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia. The country’s education system has been noted strongly for its religious content and at university level, almost two thirds of graduates earn degrees in Islamic subjects.

Although not considered part of the official education ladder and not required for enrolment in the first grade of primary education, over 100,000 children are in Pre-Primary education aged 3 and up. At this stage of their education, gender parity is at around 51% male and 49% female.

At age 6, children enter Primary education at the first grade and at the end of their primary years, will obtain the Elementary Education Certificate and move on to Intermediate education. Around 2.5 million students are in education at this level and the gender parity is similar to Pre-Primary with around 51% male and 49% female.


At age 13, students enter Intermediate education. This stage will last for approximately three years and is considered the final stage of general education. At the end of this stage, students may move on to both general and specialized secondary education including a range of technical and vocational training programs lasting for a further three years in various fields in agriculture, commerce and industry. Gender parity shifts a little at this stage with the student population being around 53% male and 49% female.

Secondary education meanwhile allows students to specialize in a particular field in order to build a career, build a social network with professionals in that field and develop related skills in order to add value to their chosen path or industry. Gender parity is similar to Intermediate education and sees the student population split at 53% male and 47% female.

Students wishing to engage and understand their subject matter further may opt to enter Higher education. Courses last for approximately four years in humanities and social sciences but can last as long as six years in medicine, engineering and pharmacy. Today there are around 24 government universities in Saudi Arabia and a range of private ones which offer diplomas, Bachelor’s, Master’s and PhD degrees as well as distance learning. Higher education gender parity is unique among the Saudi Arabian educative systems in that gender parity reverses from previous levels, with students being around 42% male and 58% female. 

Candidates wishing to teach in Saudi Arabia will require a Bachelor’s or Master’s Degree in Education or a subject relevant to the subject matter being taught. Two years of prior international experience is necessary and only native speakers of English qualified in the USA, Canada, UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa are typically considered.

Candidates with a TEFL, CEFL, CELTA, DELTA and other ESL qualifications will be considered but these are not treated as a Teaching Qualification, as such a PGCE with QTS or similar is typically required to be accepted.

Always make sure to read up on our guide on Visa and Work Permit Restrictions

Food in Saudi Arabia can cost a varied amount dependant on what you are looking for, it’s important to note that both Pork and Alcohol are banned country-wide.
However, a meal at a restaurant will cost between 15 and 50 SAR ($4-$13.30 or £2.50-£8.50) dependant on where you go, water costs around 1.35 SAR ($0.36 or £0.23) per litre, milk costs around 4.05 SAR ($1.10 or £0.69) per litre, 500g of bread costs around 2.30 SAR ($0.61 or £0.39) and 12 eggs will set you back around 7.89 SAR ($2.10 or £1.40).

Luxury-wise, costs can also vary, with a pack of cigarettes costing around 9.50 SAR ($2.53 or £1.61).

As far as rent goes, monthly rent for a 1 bedroom apartment in the city centre will cost around 1,530 SAR ($410 or £260), outside the city centre you’ll be looking at around 1,140 SAR ($300 or £190). Meanwhile a 3 bedroom apartment will cost around 2,790 SAR ($740 or £470) in the city centre and around 2,100 SAR ($560 or £360) outside. 

Officially speaking, the crime rate in Saudi Arabia is considered to be incredibly low. The only crime repeatedly reported tends to be petty theft which tends to happen only in crowded areas in major cities. But the drug trade, as well as human trafficking and prostitution are existent, if minor. Rape and sexual offense figures may be deceptive, as Saudi Arabian courts have been known to punish victims, which may indeed deter new victims from reporting the offenses.

On a corporate level, money laundering was prevalent for a while, but due to new anti-money laundering laws, this is been curbed significantly. Terrorism is also considered a matter of concern and as such, Saudi Arabia has strict laws on immigration and visitors to the country.

It’s also important to note that consuming alcohol and pork, displaying non-Islamic religious symbols or text, public displays of affection between the opposite sex, pornography, homosexuality, cross-dressing, fornication and adultery are all considered crimes in Saudi Arabia and are often strongly punished by the Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice, also known as the Religious Police. Entrants to Saudi Arabia should keep these laws in mind when in the country.

Emergency Numbers

  • Police – 999
  • Fire Department – 998
  • Ambulance/Medical – 997